Several species of anthozoans
have been found to contain significant quantities of DOPA and DOPA-like derivatives, such as 5-cysteinyldopa and 5-hydroxydopa, in their nerve nets (Carlberg et al., 1982; Carlberg, 1983, 1990; Hudman and McFarlane, 1995).
The latter specimen had unusually pale cerata, probably reflecting an atypical complement of the anthozoans
normally consumed by this species (Beeman and Williams 1980).
Furthermore, recent descriptions of very small phosphatized fossils that predate the Cambrian by 25 million years or more have demonstrated the presence of cnidarians that might even be stem anthozoans
(the cnidarian class that includes anemones and corals).
Externally, bivalves were sometimes camouflaged by external projections of the tunic, crevices and adhering epibionts, including sponges, colonial anthozoans
Gates, "Gene expression normalization in a dual-compartment system: a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction protocol for symbiotic anthozoans
," Molecular Ecology Resources, vol.
In addition, the live cover of eight epibenthic biotic characteristics (erect macroalgae, turf algae, calcareous rhodophytes in the genus Porolithon, seagrasses, sponges, hydrocorals in the genus Millepora, encrusting non-scleractinian anthozoans
, and scleractinians were ranked as follows: 1(0%), 2(1-5%), 3(6-10%), 4(11-25%), 5(26-50%), 6(51-75) and 7(76-100%).
Dolmer (2002) observed reduced numbers of poriferans, echinoderms, anthozoans
, molluscs, crustaceans, and ascidians in dredged areas four months after dredging for mussels.
(1,2) Cnidaria include "hydrozoans (fire coral and Portuguese man-of-war), scyphozoans (true jellyfish), and anthozoans
Collections made from weathered surface exposures along the banks of drainage ditches at this location include, in descending abundance and diversity, brachiopods (e.g., Callipleura sp., Chonetes sp., Mucrospirifer prolificus, Schizoporia ferronensis), anthozoans
(e.g., Aulopora sp., Heliophyllum halli bellense, Pluerodictyum cornu), bryozoans, crinoids (Gennaeocrinus variabilis), ostracods, trilobites (Phacops rana), bivalves (?Cornellites sp.), and tentaculids (Tentaculites attenuatus).
The main organisms, both in terms of cover and biomass, are anthozoans
(Paramuricea, Parazoanthus, Leptopsammia) and sponges (Chondrosia, Petrosia, Axinella).
There are certain circumstances in which anthozoans
, invertebrates and things which live in cages are infinitely preferable to the traditional companions such as dogs and cats.
Range([double Species([dagger]) Common name dagger]) Anthozoans
Anthopleura elegantissima anemone S A.