Readiness for aggression (RFA) is jointly affected by the norms for antiaggression
, deindividuation, and external events as follows: (a) the higher the norms for antiaggression
, the lower the RFA; (b) the higher the deindividuation, the higher the RFA; and (c) the more violent actions are witnessed, the higher the RFA is.
Diminished Uptake of an International Antiaggression Norm
prosecute--limited to incomplete concurrence and a slower antiaggression
hinder the development of a strong antiaggression norm, as discussed in
These proposals include antiaggression
programs, (289) which have been tested extensively on elementary-, middle-, and high-school students; restorative justice approaches, which focus on education rather than on punishment and offer opportunities for mediated dialogue between the offender and the victim; (290) and social-media advocacy efforts (for example, the "It Gets Better" campaign against antigay bullying).