In the 19thcentury, the Church's failure to respond to the social forces spawned by the Industrial Revolution ignited anticlericalism
among the European working class and gave Marxism the opportunity to become the ideology of the masses.
Rizal died no less a hero despite having repented of his former staunch anticlericalism
. To emulate his patriotism, it is unnecessary to imitate his one-time hatred for clergymen.
dates back to the early 1900s, when Jose Batlle y Ordonez served twice as president (1903-1907 and 1911-1915).
He also notes that because clerical misconduct was considered a leading cause of anticlericalism
, priests were forbidden to enter taverns, warned to stay away from disreputable women telling jokes in or around a church, and the like.
I suggest that, along with these elements, the essential ingredients for this political change were the shift in class goals (from the improvement of living conditions to democracy, republicanism and anticlericalism
), and in class emotional tone (from temperamental behavior to the practice of emotionally constrained behavior).
In these areas, there was deep opposition to the imperial police state, fed by ideas of social and economic justice, women's rights, and anticlericalism
directed at a church closely allied to the regime.
He composed poems, satires and fine comic plays, notably The Mandrake, which Voltaire praised for its anticlericalism
and which still delights lovers of bawdy farce.
Tacking between art historical and social/political analysis, he attempts to tease out Oller's positions (abolitionist sympathies, anticlericalism
, etc.) in the details of particular paintings.
Scholars have long recognized anticlericalism
as a topos of medieval comic literature (Vitale, 17), and that finding is undoubtedly applicable to Cavalcanti's sonnet.
A member of the Focolare movement, she is deeply spiritual and Catholic, but with a touch of, shall we say, clerical "suspicion," if not anticlericalism
. She has a reporter's nose for news, and I suspect if she had been born in a different generation, you would definitely know her name as a top Catholic journalist.
It describes the conditions in Veracruz and Michoac[sz]n when the two men entered office; how political power bases were established in the two states to implement their reforms; how they used the public education system and anticlericalism
to create a popular consciousness receptive to their reform messages; the struggle to promote agrarian reform; the campaign to eradicate the two men and the presidential election, which C[sz]rdenas won; and their fates, contributions to Mexican agrarianism, and implications for the Mexican republic.