In the 1930s, as anticlericals warned that female suffrage would allow credulous and weak-minded women to elect the Church into power, Archbishop O'Doherty declared himself in favor of women's right to vote.
In the early 20th century, the Catholic hierarchy saw women as allies against an anticlerical male elite.
In the ensuing disturbances between Catholics and anticlericals
, several of the images were damaged.
Communists and anticlericals
crowed over their triumph as the respected attorney was cast out of the city he loved.
maintained by those who need it most: the anticlericals
. Their tactics
Particularly important are the ideological struggles during the state-building period that create "a path-dependence concerning state-religion interactions." Thus, "the marriage between the old monarchy and religious hegemony" during the ancien regime is likely to produce an "anticlerical
(or antireligious) movement against it, and "the ancien regime becomes the basis of polarization between the anticlericals
and conservatives" (p.
and many Catholics assumed that commerce tainted religion.
In 1910 women returned to the important program committee of company members of the Comedie Francaise for the first time in 57 years--the result of a ministerial action prompted by male theater colleagues who advocated this on the grounds of "equity." To account for recognition of theater women's accomplishments, Berlanstein cites the impact of not only democratization but also republican anticlericals
, who promoted new secular models for womanhood (p.
Even some ardent anticlericals
advocated retention of nursing sisters whose "qualities of self-abnegation, deference, and lack of personal ambition" reassured those who "mistrusted the presence of trained lay women in public institutions" (50).
She is good on the songs, caricatures, charivaris, meetings, pamphlets, and the command performances of Tartuffe as being a script for anticlericals
, most of whom were not in the electorate.
Historical studies of early national Mexico narrate the lives of generals and politicians or focus on the elite political formations associated with them--federalists and centralizers, anticlericals
and clerics, Yorkinos and Escoseses.
Catholic reactionaries had been marginalized by the Church hierarchy, just as radical anticlericals
had been defeated in power struggles within the CArdenas administration.