Although the clash of sounds in this poem is represented across gender lines, the predominant conflict and the most demeaning descriptions are clearly reserved for "mere Women-Scolds." The antifeminine
harangue, deriving from a view of the "imbred Discords in the Female Minds" (187), is long and intrusive.
Jennifer Baumgardner and Amy Richards--self-identified third-wave feminists--maintain that today's hyper-feminine "girlie" aesthetic, which reclaims traditionally feminized items as "knitting, the color pink [and] nailpolish," represents today's women who "are reacting to an antifeminine
, antijoy emphasis that they perceive as the legacy of Second Wave seriousness" (80).
occupations were more likely to endorse antifeminine
attitudes than were
Films noirs are just "nasty, antifeminine
" atrocities, as are Hitchcock's films.
(7.) For example, Mary Lee Bretz cogently analyzes Margarita Nelken's argument Doro history: "early in the text [La condicion social de la mujer en Espanol, the blame for the lack of women's advancement in Spain is attributed equally to the Moorish influence and a narrow-minded anti-Christian Church (13), but in a subtle textual about-face, in a later discussion, the text speaker points out that under the purported antifeminine
Moorish regime, there were several famous women doctors at the University of Cordoba (44).
Under postmodern premises, androgynous socialization potentially gives rise to more balanced individuals (in terms of both masculine and feminine traits) and thus psychologically prepares men to accept, embrace, and blend their sexual and emotional states without the shame, confusion, and anxiety that accompanies an antifeminine
norm associated with the traditional male sex role (Thompson & Pleck, 1987).
The patronizing tone of the vorticists and their insinuation that the suffragettes lacked an essential sense of good art have typically been read as a manifestation of the movement's misogyny, which critics attr ibute either to the antifeminine
bias of Italian futurism or to the patriarchal obsession that characterized many avant-garde groups.
71) but the 'glorification of a homosocial, antifeminine
Thus, as Eugene Cunnar has noted, James's own misogyny "set an antifeminine
tone at court that fostered, in part, the famous Swetnam controversy in which males attempted to subdue women and put them in their place." It is not surprising, then, that many of Jonson's early works for the Jacobean court "work as [an] appeal to James's patriarchal and misogynist views," views which Cunnar, and others, have related to Jonson's "own misogyny and fear of becoming effeminized."(13) Dol Common fits neatly into this atmosphere.
The humorist occupies a position of superiority; women are inferior."(7) Zita Dresner notes "the generally acknowledged antifeminine
bias in what has been labeled |native' American humor," visible not only in "the relative absence of women as primary humorous characters, but also in their functions as negative stereotypes in masculine humor."(8) Linda A.
Later, gx affirms his antifeminine
and antigay perspective, noting: All my friends are hetero's [sic].