, applied to the underwater hull of ships, discourages or prevents the growth of organisms that attach to the hull.
(3.) Giudice, CA, del Amo, B, Rascio, VJD, Sindoni, O, "Composition and Dissolution Rate of Antifouling Paint
Binders (Soluble Type) During Their Immersion in Artificial Sea Water." J.
Guggenheim adds that, although antifouling paint
can pollute, it also serves an important environmental role--preventing invasive species from hitchhiking into new waters attached to a vessel's hull.
It is entitled "Recreational Water Vessels--Antifouling Paints" and states that beginning January 1, 2020, no antifouling paint
that is intended for use on a recreational water vessel that contains more than 0.5% copper may be offered for sale, nor may it be applied to a recreational water vessel, in the state of Washington.
Such products include SEA-NINE, designed for marine antifouling paint
The (uncoated) edges of the panels were covered in commercial antifouling paint
to prevent biofouling from developing on unprotected areas of the panels.
After this study was published, California passed Assembly Bill (AB) 425, which required DPR by February 2014 to "establish a leach rate for copper-based antifouling paint
used on recreational vessels and make recommendations for appropriate mitigation measures that may be implemented to address the protection of aquatic environments from the effects of exposure to that paint if it is registered as a pesticide." The maximum allowable leach rates that DPR developed are based on the statewide limit of 3.1 [mu]g/I for dissolved copper and took into consideration 20 California salt water marinas of different sizes with various levels of copper loading and different cleaning methods.
Burgess, JG, Boyd, KG, Armstrong, E, Jiang, Z, Yan, L, Berggren, M, May, U, Pisacane, T, Granmo, A, Adams, DR, "The Development of a Marine Natural Product-Based Antifouling Paint
." Biofouling, 19 (Suppl.) 197-205 (2003).
ACA supported passage of California AB 425, Antifouling Paint
Registration and Mitigation.
we discovered the negative consequences of using TBT in antifouling paint
on the marine ecosystem, especially in areas of low water interchange by tidal influence, such as bays or estuaries, where it is especially detrimental to populations of some invertebrates, mollusks, crustaceans, and fish, with serious malformations detected in some species.