David Norbrook, Poetry and Politics in the English Renaissance (Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1984), 224-25, argues that Jonson himself had a "somewhat strained" relationship with Buckingham: he satirized Buckingham's family in The Gypsies Metamorphosed and his "taste for riotous and farcical masques" in the antimasque
of The Masque of Augurs; moreover, he disapproved of Buckingham's influence in Charles's proposed match with the Spanish infanta.
Stephen Orgel reproduces the antimasque
in "Porimene and the Ante-Masques," Renaissance Drama 4(1971): 149-53.
(37.) The second antimasque
of Beaumont's The Masque of Inner Temple and Grayes Inne, which was performed at Whitehall in 1612, also included a morris procession with both a "hee baboon" and a "shee baboon," both "appareled to the life." See Helge Kokeritz, "The Beast-Eating Clown, The Two Noble Kinsman, 3.5.131" in Modern Language Notes 61.8 (1946): 532-35, 534.
In a spirited discussion of the inset masques of The Picture and The Guardian she makes the persuasive case that Massinger is not simplistically antimasque
or anticourt in his depictions even though his inset masques tread a delicate line between the "celebratory and the comic" (68).
There is good evidence that aristocratic dance was represented on English public stages already in the sixteenth century, and certainly by the time of the dancing masters working alongside Jonson and Jones (mentioned only once), court masque and even antimasque
dances were to be found on the public stage as part of a rich and ongoing conversation between elite and popular forms that is not much discussed in this volume.
Resistance, when it does occur, is examined as the production of competing images by alternative sources of authority--the antimasque
figures of Carew and Jones and the Lady of Milton's Comus, and the masses, when they appear, do so as a receptive audience with imaginations easily swayed by the rhetoric of power.
(6) Once again madness and the morris are joined, for the "Tom O'Bedlam" tune accompanies an antimasque
morris dance of country rustics.
Pizzorno focuses on the Antimasque
of Mountebanks (1618), in which Paradox appears on stage as a character.
At Windsor, the rustics who dance in the antimasque
ask how they themselves might become gypsies.
For instance, the transition from the antimasque
to the proper section of Jonson's Neptune's triumph for the return of Albion (1624) was marked by an exclamation of the Poet at the discovery of the first scenic tableau: "Well, now, expect the scene itself; it opens!" (Lindley 1995: 142).
The structure of the court masque was brought to perfection by Jonson, when he included the antimasque
with the witches of The Masque of Queens (1609) and the satyrs of Oberon (1611).
Even for heaven "full of deities," the queen mother determines the "celestial prospect." Puritans and other troublesome furies disturb such tranquility, as the masque shows in its opening antimasque
. Such masques could, conversely, in their various assertions of royal supremacy and hierarchical arrangements of everyone else, including, but certainly not limited to, assertions of the supremacy of bodily whiteness, the inferiority of bodily blackness, and insistence on strict linear, as opposed to moral, perspective, and in their sometime reverence of Catholics, as this masque emphatically does in placing Marie de Medicis in the perspective-defining seat of state, terribly disturb Puritans and other antiauthoritarians.