7 mm, a length of at least 450 mm, radiopaque, with a plug and protective cover, double antireflux valve with connector -package for collection of liquid not less than 2000 ml - syringe not less than 60 ml.
We believe there is imperative need to undertake large-scale prospective, multicentre and well-designed randomised studies to compare different treatment modalities including stents incorporating an antireflux valve in patients with this devastating disease.
In a second study, compared with patients on esomeprazole therapy, GERD patients who underwent laparoscopic antireflux surgery (LARS), had significantly greater reductions in 24-hour esophageal add exposure after 6 months and at 5 years.
Etiologies of iatrogenic diaphragmatic defects include Ivor Lewis procedure, antireflux procedures, esophagomyotomy, partial gastrectomy, gastric banding procedures, and misguided chest tubes or thoracoabdominal incisions in which the diaphragm is taken down .
The second and third most commonly prescribed medications were oral steroids and antireflux medications, and these were used in the analysis models to address for potential effects of overall medication use.