Not unlike hydropathy and homeopathy, naturopathy drew from the ranks of German healers, philosophical idealists, spiritual and mental healers, vegetarians, botanics, antivaccination and antivivisectionists
, and individualists who rejected authority, including licensing, in their endorsement of "every man his own physician." Emerging at a time when conventional medicine was not much different from other "panthies," and had yet to absorb modern science and bacteriology, naturopathy fed off the public's disdain for conventional medicine's heavy-handed efforts to standardize and professionalize itself as the lone repository of medical truth.
While these research successes were being celebrated, abuse and exploitation, resulting in violations of human dignity and disrespect for morality, were starting to surface in the field, and by the 1890s, antivivisectionists
were already calling for laws to protect children because of the increasing numbers of institutionalised children being subjected to vaccine experiments in Europe and the USA.
He has been criticized for animal experiments conducted without anaesthesia, and is quoted as saying, "I am selfish enough to prefer mankind to frogkind, rabbitkind, etc." As a result, he was attacked, at least twice physically, by antivivisectionists
. Today, we would condemn some of his techniques as needlessly inhumane, but it is essential to remember the prevailing ethos.
As Chien-Hui Li puts it, antivivisectionists
, despite the lack of institutional support from churches, took the initiative upon themselves in turning to the Christian tradition in their attempt to make sense of and deal with the moral issues posed by new developments in the field of physiological science.
The Lutheran minister and sociologist Peter Berger one suggested that if cannibals and antivivisectionists
where in a room together for a while, they would arrive at a compromise, such as it is not right to eat one's relatives.
(agoraphobics, masochists, antivivisectionists
, homosexuals) was small
In this paper, I examine the discursive tendencies employed by British antivivisectionists
during the greater part of the nineteenth century to bring French experimental physiology into disrepute.
Mantegazza's attacks on antivivisectionists
are also employed by
According to Jonathan Moreno, the first efforts to limit research on humans did not occur until the 1890s, when antivivisectionists
began calling for laws to protect institutionalized children from being used in medical experiments for vaccine development in the U.S.
This letter prompted a reply from a vivisection lobbyist (Understanding Animal Research) Mr McGee (September 12), prompting two replies from prominent antivivisectionists
including one doctor practising medicine.
In effect, then, Phelps's involvement with the antivivisectionists
actually enlarged her understanding of the factors that contributed to the formation of a doctor's behaviors in the sickroom.
The relationship between the rhetoric of social Darwinism and the politics of professional advancement was frequently exposed by the polemical writings of the antivivisectionists
, which emphasized the pragmatic self-interest motivating professional advancement in the sciences.