Transportation was evaluated at three levels (cervical, middle, and apical third
) using the CTAn v.1.12 software (Bruker-microCT, Kontich, Belgium).
Eye bare; arista bare; ocellar seta proclinate, short or weak; outer vertical seta reduced, indistinguishable from postocular seta; frontal setae descending to level of upper third of parafacial, flanked by irregular row of shorter setae; fronto-orbital plate with short and thin setulae from vertex level to lowermost frontal seta; one reclinate orbital seta; proclinate orbital seta absent; parafacial bare except for a few hairs below lowest frontal seta; arista tapering smoothly to apex; first aristomere short; second aristomere slightly longer than wide; vibrissa stout, inserted above level of lower facial margin; palpus clavate, slightly bowed on apical third
and slightly longer than prementum; lower facial margin slightly projected; genal dilation covered with thin black setulae.
The instruments were used as follows: D1 (size 20, 0.09 taper) for the coronal third; D2 (25/.08) for the middle third; and D3 (20/.07) and F4 (40/.06) for the apical third
. The instruments were used with a VDW motor (VDW, Munich, Germany) at 600 rpm for ProTaper Universal Retreatment System instruments, and 300 rpm for the F4 instrument, with a torque setting of up to 2 N/cm, according to manufacturer's instructions.
Gonostyle with the upper external spine implanted in its apical third
and the lower external spine and the internal one in its middle; Aedeagal ducts/sperm pump ratio ca.
In some specimens the white longitudinal band located on the costal margin is less apparent and two vertical bands are present (Figures 3-4), the first located between the basal and median third and the second between the median and apical third
Root filling material is removed from the cervical third by D1, middle third by D2 and apical third
by D3 files.
Studies involving this subject have revealed that cleaning of the apical third
is more challenging as compared to the other portions of root canals, and residual smear scores following treatment protocols increase from the coronal part toward the apical region (2, 7, 8).
found that 68% of the canal space remained filled by Ca[(OH).sub.2] after instrumentation and conventional needle irrigation in the apical third
of C-shaped root canals .
(3) To respect the anatomical danger zone in curved canals: the inner wall of the middle third and outer aspect of the apical third
Superio-inferiorly it extends from middle thirds of roots of 12, 53, 14, 15, and 16 to lower border of right axillary sinus extending till the apical third
of root of impacted 13.
Figure 5 depicts the three-dimensional maps visualized from the y-axis (north-south), x-axis (east-west), z-axis (quota) and in cuts on the basal, intermediate and apical thirds
. The analysis of the thematic map revealed that lower rates of TSS content are reported in the basal and intermediate thirds, as well as in the central and SW regions of the tree, whereas rates above the average are concentrated in the peripheral area of the tree in all thirds, with higher concentrations in the extreme north region, in the apical third
and in the NW region of the basal third, or rather, the highest rates of solar radiation (quadrants NE and NW).
27 Furthermore, reciprocating motion facilitates centered instrumentation more than a continuous rotating motion does, as aggressive continuous rotating motion tends toward the external wall of the canal, especially in the apical third
. 28 Comparisons of singleC...file technique systems with the ProTaper NiTi system (continuous rotating moC...