The species of non-Saccharomyces yeast that are naturally present on grapes at the highest numbers belong mainly to the apiculate
yeast genus Hanseniaspora (mainly Hanseniaspora uvarum teleomorph and Kloeckera apiculata) and other species of the genera Candida, Pichia, Kluyveromyces and Metschnikowia.
turris in valve morphology and size but differs in the apiculate
shape of the apices (Metzeltin & Lange-Bertalot, 1998).
Rhizomes long creeping, covered with membranous ovate-apiculate
scales; rhizome scales comose in distinct grades on dorsal surface, bicolorous with a dark central streak of sclerotic cells and pale margins, which are denticulate to erose; blade lanceolate to oblanceolate, basally pinnatisect and lobed to pinnatifid distally, with proximal lobe free; laminar scales scattered on abaxial surface and glabrescent on adaxial surface, with round to ovate scales with apiculate
or caudate apices, center obscure brown, margins pale brown, fimbriate to ciliate; midribs and secondary veins not visible; sori oblong, with orbicular, peltate scales similar to those in the lamina; spores bilateral, abortive, prominently verrucate.
Leaflets obovate to elliptic, 3-18 mm long, 3-9 mm wide, pubescent, upper half serrate, apiculate
Terminal hairs forming a dense head with stout, spiraled with 3-4 convolutions, Ascospores lemon-shaped, apiculate
on both ends, 7-10.
Role of Apiculate
Yeasts on Organoleptic Characteristics of Wine.
Dorsal lobe of stem leaf plane, apex acute to breifly apiculate
, perianth pyriform, 3-keeled .
In the equatorial view, the most typical shapes are rhomboidal, apiculate
, rectangular, or oval.
syphilitica are leathery, lanceolate- shaped, apex apiculate
, obtuse at the base, and fully margined.
7 cm long, (5) 7-9 mm wide, leathery and reddish-green, saccate, with a revolute or trumpet-shaped margin with an apiculate
lip around the slightly constricted orifice, recurved and pendulous, sessile, and attached 1.
Higher alcohol and acetic acid production by apiculate
5) mm long, globose to ovoid, with obtuse, apiculate
apex, conspicuously pitted, white or gray, with tufts or lines of minute, yellowish to purplish hairs; hypogynium distinctly 3-lobed, the lobes oblong to lanceolate, apex obtuse to subacute, appressed to achene base.