reproduce clonally through seeds, including apomeiosis, parthenogenesis, and autonomous or pseudogamous endosperm formation.
Ruzigrass is a diploid sexual species, while accessions of signalgrass and palisadegrass are mostly tetraploid apomicts
(Miles et al., 2004; Valle and Savidan, 1996).
biologists, that apomicts
meet the first criterion for being victorious
In many plants, seeds regularly develop from unfertilized egg cells or from cells other than egg cells; the resultant plants, termed apomicts
, are genetically identical with the mother plant.
Dennis says several pasture grasses, such as Pennisetum and the maize relative Tripsicum, arc facultative apomicts
. Like most grasses, they are wind pollinated, but if the wind doesn't deliver, they can fall back on apomixis.
Environmental sensitivity of sexual and apomictic Antennaria: Do apomicts
have general-purpose genotypes?
annuus is similar to that of other prominent apomicts
in the family Asteraceae, such as Taraxacum and Antennaria (McDonald, 1927; Mogie, 1992; Asker and Jerling, 1992).
Marandu, respectively (both tetraploid apomicts
), and sexual reproduction of a tetraploidized, sexual biotype of B.
It appears that apomicts
have larger ecological tolerances than their sexual progenitors probably because of (1) a hybrid and polyploid nature, combining or even exceeding the progenitors' ecological ranges and (2) the (near) absence of recombination such that a genotype doing well in a certain environment can produce equally well-adapted progeny (Bierzychudek 1989).
The species of the genus Citrus are facultative or obligate apomicts
. The usual reduced embryo sac degenerates and is replaced by an unreduced somatic embryo, a type of apomixis called nucellar embryony (den Nijs & van Dijk, 1993).
Hybrids between dioecious Texas bluegrass and apomictic Kentucky bluegrass are facultative apomicts
and demonstrate the reproductive versatility within Poa.
1989), and only Bierzychudek (1989), in her study of apomictic and sexual forms of Antennaria, showed convincingly that apomicts
were less sensitive to changes in environmental conditions (i.e., interpreted as more general-purpose responses) than closely related sexual forms.