The medial and lateral borders are rounded, whereas the posterior border forms a rough crest which is known as linea aspera.1 Most of the shaft of femur is smooth and rounded and provides origin to extensors of knee except posteriorly where linea aspera provides aponeurotic
attachment for the adductors of the thigh.
Unlike HIFU treatments, it can accurately distinguish between the different depths of skin that need to be targeted for lifting, such as 3.0 mm beneath the surface of the skin, just above the superficial muscular aponeurotic
system (SMAS) that holds the various layers together, and even as deep as 4.5 mm beneath the surface and onto the skin's foundational layer.
Whereas the neonates with life threatening congenital malformations, chromo-somal abnormalities like trisomy 13, 18 and 21, congenital hydrocephalus, trauma like cephalo-hematoma, sub aponeurotic
hemorrhage and caput succedaneum, Pulmonary disease like respiratory distress syndrome were excluded from the study.
Surgical modalities tried include re-elevation of the cheek skin flap and interposition of various tissue barriers such as dermal graft, free grafts, superficial muscular aponeurotic
system flaps, and temporoparietal fascia between the cheek skin and the parotid gland.,,
(15) described the lateral knee in five layers: aponeurotic
, superficial, middle, deep, and capsuleosseus layers.
It represents second most common fractures of facial skeleton after nasal bone.1Its fractures are inherently unstable due to; corner stone position, attached superficial muscular aponeurotic
system (SMAS) and strong masseteric muscle downward pull.
The cause of ptosis maybe aponeurotic
(most common form), traumatic, congenital, mechanical, neurogenic, and myogenic .
There is a similar continuity along the superficial fascia of the chest and the platysma, which is connected with the superficial muscular aponeurotic
system (SMAS) comprising the mimical muscles of the face [69, 72, 73].
Congenital causes, oculomotor nerve palsy, myasthenia gravis, post-traumatic causes, and more rarely, Marcus- Gunn jaw-winking (MGJWS) syndrome and aponeurotic
ptosis are considered among the causes.
In a review of the clinical, electrodiagnostic, and radiographic features of ulnar neuropathy at the elbow, Landau and Campbell (5) found that there are 3 main sites of ulnar nerve compromise at the elbow: (1) retrocondylar groove, proximal to the medial epicondyle/olecranon; (2) humcro-ulnar aponeurotic
areh including cubital tunnel syndrome and as the ulnar nerve passes between the areuate ligament spanning the two heads of the FCU; and (3) flexor/pronator aponeurosis as the ulnar nerve exits from beneath the FCU.
It develops from aponeurotic
fascia of pectoral muscle or from breast tissue (3).