Maximum distraction of apophyseal
joints depends on the combination of multiple factors including traction force, time and angle of cervical traction.
avulsion fractures of the hip and pelvis.
It includes an array of innovative interbody fusion devices engineered for easier insertion, reduced subsidence through maximum contact with the apophyseal
ring, a generous bone grafting area and compatibility with the InFill graft delivery system.
joint restrictions with localized tenderness on palpation of the facet or apophyseal
joints of the neck with no distal radiation) (See Table 3).
The most widely used diagnostic criteria were proposed by Resnick and Niwayama in the 1970s, including calcification and ossification along the anterolateral aspect of at least four contiguous vertebral bodies, preservation of intervertebral disc height at the involved segments, and absence of apophyseal
joint ankylosis and sacroiliac inflammatory changes.
2) The growth of syndesmophytes along the vertebral column in these patients, fusion of the apophyseal
joints and ossification of the spinal ligaments are causes of restricted spinal mobility.
LM is inhibited because of pain arising from apophyseal
joints or intervertebral discs and can be involved in a negative circuit that perpetuates a self-inhibition (2).
The skeletally immature individual is particularly at risk for these injuries due to the unique anatomic features of the growth plate and apophyseal
Sairyo et al [35,36], studied apophyseal
ring fracture using a FE pediatric spine and observed the traction force-induced avulsion fracture during flexion.
Adhin, "Isolated apophyseal
avulsion of the coracoid process: case report and review of literature, " Acta Orthopaedica Belgica, vol.
Radiographs were reviewed for the following features: loss of cervical lordosis, odontoid process erosion, anterior atlantoaxial subluxation, C1-C2 arthritis, atlantoaxial impaction, inflammation of disc, apophyseal
joint arthritis, anterior ankylosis, apophyseal
joint ankylosis, anterior and posterior subaxial subluxation and growth disturbances.
They found that decreased disc-space height in X-Ray, decreased signal intensity within the disc on MRI, ring apophyseal
injury in X-Ray, severe end-plate degeneration and disk degeneration on MRI, were the most correlated imaging findings with LBP.