Dehydration of leaf cells can occur when Na accumulates in the leaf apoplast
and enzyme reactions can also be inhibited (Keren 2000).
These enzymes are capable of hydrolyzing ATP, and generate energy and electrochemical gradient that are closely involved with the increase of cellular wall plasticity by acidification of the apoplast
, a process called acid growth theory (TAIZ and ZEIGER, 2017).
The increase of peroxidase and catalase activity in overcoming dormancy treatments with heated water at 75 and 95[degrees]C is indicative that these enzymes acted to keep low levels of the [H.sub.2][O.sub.2] radical in the apoplast
of the tegument cells, enabling in this way the loosening of their walls and facilitating the water inflow and germination.
Exudation of malate in Arabidopsis is essential for root length reduction in P deficiency mediated by Fe accumulation in the apoplast
(MORA-MACIAS et al., 2017; BALZERGUE et al., 2017).
(1993) the excessive absorption of the ammonium ion contributes to promote the electrochemical imbalance in the interior of the cells and of the intracellular pH, which stimulates the extrusion of ions to the apoplast
. Furthermore, it provokes alterations in the osmotic and hormonal balances of the plants and increases in the resistance to the water flow, which might promote an increment in the percentage of cell membrane damage.
The magnetic field (MF) is involved in antioxidant mediated reactions in the apoplast
, which plays an important role in overcoming a redox imbalance.
During the sucrose accumulation in the stem, parenchyma cell apoplast
facilitate as an additional storage compartment that increases sink strength.
A prompt exchange of [Cd.sup.2+] ions takes place with [H.sup.+] in plasma membranes of root cells and through apoplast
pathway, [Cd.sup.2+] ions get adsorbed .
The hyphae then invade the leaf apoplast
via open stomata or wounds.
It has been reported that foliar applied K stimulates the export of sugars from phloem (phloem unloading) into the apoplast
(Doman and Gieger, 1979).
Flooding can result in an anaerobic situation in the plant root system that induces pH changes in the apoplast
LPH is a secretory signal and can target recombinant proteins into the apoplast
and increase protein yield .