apoplast


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apoplast

(ˈæpəˌplæst)
n
(Botany) botany the nonprotoplasmic component of a plant, including the cell walls and intercellular material
References in periodicals archive ?
Once in the apoplast, bacteria typically have much higher growth rates
36] reported that Al accumulation in the beans primarily and predominantly occurred in the root apoplast (30-90 % of the total absorbed Al) of peripheral cells, and is only very slowly translocated to more central tissues [37].
Ascorbate peroxidase is another antioxidant enzyme which exists in chloroplast, apoplast (such as vacuole) and cytosol [10,4].
The former is characterized by the distribution of hyphae throughout the cortex, extracellularly, spreading along the apoplast, and the formation of arbuscules.
The apoplast is considered the first line of defense against pollutants, where ozone can be detoxified before it reaches the leaf cell surface and causes the damage that interferes with photosynthesis and reduces yields.
Contributors also address adaptation to the plant apoplast by pathogenic bacteria and specific issues related to Agobacterium (pathogenicity, biocontrol and evolution), Xyella fastidiosa (common genes and genomic breaks), the sugarcane pathogen Leifsonia xyli and Xanthomonas (biological insights based on genome sequencing), enterobacterial plant pathogens, Ralstonia solanacearum and bacterial wilt, Pseudomonas syringae (secretion systems, effector genes and the evolution of virulence), elicitors of innate immunity in plants, bacterial Type III effectors and their plant targets, cyclic Di-GMP signaling and the regulation of virulence, characteristics of native plasmids from plant pathogenic bacteria, and the use of bioinformatics in high-throughput sequencing technology.
The total volume of apoplast reaches 10-25% of the leaf volume, forming a significant transportation networks for the water motion into the cells [10].
2] may also lead to the development of an antimicrobial environment within the apoplast (Peng and Kuc, 1992).
A proportion of the released malate may also have chelated Al within the apoplast of the root, a possibility put forward by Kinraide et al.
The root CEC is located in the apoplast and is attributed to the free carboxyl groups of galacturonic acids of cell wall pectins in the middle lamella.
199 TAKAHAMA U,PLANT CEL P,vol 0033,page 0379,1992,cites= 11,REGULATION OF PEROXIDASE-DEPENDENT OXIDATION OF PHENOLICS IN THE APOPLAST OF SPINACH LEAVES BY ASCORBATE
These authors described an apoplastic continuum between the leaf mesophyll cells and a system of membranous extracellular channels, suggesting that this continuum may function in the absorption of solutes from the apoplast (Oross & Thomson, 1982a; Amarasinghe & Watson, 1988).