En dehors de la mise en defens, la meme formation subit une utilisation intense, ce qui cause la disparition de plusieurs especes appetible
(Stipa tenacissima, Stipagrostis pungens, Helianthemum lippii) et l'abondance d'autres especes non appetible
et toxiques telles que Atractylis serratuloides, Thymelaea microphylla, Peganum harmala.
Aquinas's first principle is that the passions are passive: they are appetites conditioned by an active principle called an "apprehended appetible
." This appetible
is an object, either imaginary or real, currently apprehended by one of the internal senses (e.g., memory, imagination, or cogitation); passions relate to their objects as a moved mover to an unmoved mover.
doe first arise in the appetible
or concupiscible parte.
In this case, goodness--understood, it should be noted, specifically as an appetible
object rather than as, say, the predicate of a moral action--is necessarily self-referential.
According to these second and third ways, the Devil or man can incite to sin either by offering an appetible
object to the senses or by persuading the reason.
object moves the appetitive power to have an intention toward the object.
Now recall that the degree to which the will is determined by the intellect is directly proportionate to the nature of the appetible object.
According to Gallagher, Thomas must believe that the will is able to control how the intellect considers the appetible object.
Given his motivation to defend Aquinas from the charge of cognitive determinism, Gallagher is obliged ultimately to ascribe to Aquinas not only that the will can control or influence how the intellect evaluates or considers appetible objects but also that it can do so autonomously.
That is, when the appetible object is good from all points of view (sub omni ratione boni), as is the case with happiness, the will is necessitated (necessitatur) to choose it since the intellect can only present it to the will under a desirable description.
This is due to the fact that it can control how the intellect considers appetible objects, a notion that bears a striking resemblance to Giles's own theory.
It is a flaw in the will of the sinner that makes possible the motion of his sense appetite toward an appetible
, yet wrongful, object.