Beverly Jerold takes up the specific question of the appoggiatura
. After considering instruction from treatises by Giuseppe Tartini, Geminiani, and Johann Joachim Quantz, Jerold ultimately concludes that most of the appoggiaturas
in Scarlatti's music should be performed as short ornaments, with the appoggiatura
lunga reserved for those notated in regular notes or with smaller notes of longer value.
Two specific nonchord tones are the accented appoggiatura
(leap up, step down) and the unaccented escape tone (step up, leap down).
Beverly Jerold's recent publications include: The Complexities of Early Instrumentation: Winds and Brass (Brepols, 2015); Music Performance Issues: 1600-1900 (Pendragon, 2016); "Performance Conditions, Standards and Bach's Chorus", The Musical Times (2017); "Zukunftsmusik/Music of the Future: A Moral Question" (2017) and "A Vindication of Ferdinand Hiller" (2018), Journal of Musicological Research; "Quantz and Agricola: A Literary Collaboration", Acta Musicologica (2016); "The appoggiatura
breve in Domenico Scarlatti's Sonate", in The Early Keyboard Sonata in Italy and Beyond (Brepols, 2016); and further articles in Music Theory & Analysis (2015/2014); the Journal of Singing (2017); and Early Music (2014).
, James Still; music: Gregg Coffin; dir: Peter Amster.
attributed to what is classically termed "appoggiatura
- An embellishing note or tone preceding an essential melodic note or tone and usually written as a note of smaller size.
She uses appoggiatura
, a musical figure in which a discordant grace note leans into a dominant note of resolution and simultaneously leans her body into the pain of a "broken Hallelujah." While doing so, she adopts the oppositional and asymmetrical posture of contrapposto (Jaeger 8), a standing "counter-pose" where the body shifts weight from one foot to the other and slightly twists the upper torso.
If all that takes place in an hour's lesson is to learn the difference between a grace note and an appoggiatura
, it would seem that the so-called "bottom line" value of the lesson is limited.
In terms of the harmony, this must be an elaborated appoggiatura
, giving the dissonance of the trill's upper note on the third beat; otherwise we lose the tension that the trill offers.
Briefly, a consists of a single cluster chord that grounds an enlarged appoggiatura
(a series of ornamental notes that precedes the main note intended in the composition).