Other major environmental stressors are the unsustainable extraction of freshwater as indicated by the reduction of aquatic vertebrate
species' populations by 50% in just 40 years, and rainforest reduction as indicated by the estimated extinction of 50,000 species of plants and animals per year.
Fish as an aquatic vertebrate
is in direct contact with the aquatic environment that could put forth some impact on the hematological characteristics (Gabriel et al.
The common ancestor is believed to be an aquatic vertebrate
, probably a predatory marine fish, with good eyesight, jaws and teeth and a lateral line system for detecting water movements.
The patterns of positive selection across mammalian, avian and aquatic vertebrate
genomes show that sensory receptor genes are highly conserved.
These mats are a means of dispersion of aquatic vertebrates
and invertebrates (Horwath and Lamberti, 1997; Bulla et al., 2007).
Highland aquatic vertebrates
are constantly challenged by hypoxia, and most of these vertebrates exhibit related functional and structural modifications.
were developing four limbs, which would serve tetrapods well when vertebrates eventually conquered land.
A planktivorous diet, also called suspension-feeding, is known among some specialized aquatic vertebrates
today, including the blue whale, manta ray, and whale shark.
Thus, aquatic vertebrates
that inhabit these sites are great models for vision studies since they are exposed to different light wave spectra in relatively closed habitats.
tenebrosus feed on a wide variety of aquatic invertebrate (e.g., stoneflies, caddis flies, and mayfly larvae) as well as an occasional small aquatic vertebrates
such as fish, tadpoles, and salamander larvae (Johnson and Shreck, 1969; Antonelli el al., 1972; Parker, 1993a).
It's possible, for example, that motion-blind fish perhaps employ their lateral line, sense organs found in aquatic vertebrates
used to detect movement and vibration in water.
Tissues such as the liver, forebrain, lateral line (a sensory system found in aquatic vertebrates
), otic vesicles, eyes, heart, and cranial and somite muscle appeared to be strongly affected by some of the compounds tested, but not others.