Iqbal was given a five-day imprisonment in 2013 by a magistrate for selling paan, an assortment that includes areca nut
and tobacco wrapped in betel leaf, and other items during the time of the fast in violation of the ordinance.
According to the World Health Organisation, the areca nut
-- a common component of all betel-sourced preparations -- has been observed to cause oral submucous fibrosis (a precancerous condition that can progress to malignant oral cancer), leading to the determination that areca nut
itself is carcinogenic to humans.
, also known as betel nut, is the fruit of Areca catechu and is used around the world as a chewing substance, either alone or in combination with other ingredients.
Exposure to areca nut
(Areca catechu) containing products with or without tobacco is currently believed to lead to OSF (Oral Submucous Fibrosis) in individuals with genetic immunologic or nutritional predisposition to the diseased or from recurrent trauma from betel quid/betel nut chewing or due effects of arecoline leads to sub mucosal fibrosis.
There was a slight difference between results of current study and study conducted on Thai population where areca nut
chewing was in 50.2% of individuals.26
Since sale of tobacco and tobacco products are illegal in the country, the NSB included areca nut
Gutka is a chewable form of tobacco made from crushed areca nut
, tobacco, paraffin wax and flavouring.
This could possibly be justified by the fact that the harmful constituents of naswar such as slaked lime, tobacco and areca nut
prove to be detrimental and may be classified as independent risk factors for causing oral tissue inflammation.
In-vitro antibacterial and antifungal effect of areca nut
"Americans are not our friends as they always seek to enslave us," said Muhammad, 56, who sells paan, a chewy combination of tobacco, betel leaf and areca nut
, near Karachi's port.
The keywords (or subject terms) extracted from the 788 articles included the following: squamous cell carcinoma, OC, betel quid, areca nut
, expression, tobacco, oral submucous fibrosis, cigarette smoking, arecoline, carcinogenesis, alcohol, India, p53, leukoplakia, lesions, epithelial cell, and esophageal cancer, which had significant correlations with emphasis on such vital keywords as squamous cell carcinoma, OC, betel quid, areca nut
, and expression [Figure 3].