And the different forms of government make laws democratical, aristocratical
, tyrannical, with a view to their several interests; and these laws, which are made by them for their own interests, are the justice which they deliver to their subjects, and him who transgresses them they punish as a breaker of the law, and unjust.
It must be noted that this flattening of the head has something in it of aristocratical
significancy, like the crippling of the feet among the Chinese ladies of quality.
Two epaulettes graced the shoulders of the hero; and before the picture was done, although it was somewhat at variance with republican principles, an aristocratical
star glittered on its breast.
Into this "aristocratical
" set I was now regularly introduced.
Adams maintained that an "aristocratical
" senate, a strong, independent executive power, and a house of "the people" would secure the public good.
Although oligarchic--or, as John Adams styled it, an "aristocratical
republic"--Rome's virtues as a pastoral, mixed government republic were unmatched in the classical world.
would facilitate a 'chain of communication between the people and those, to whom they have committed the exercise of the powers of government.'" (201) Actually, the quote from Wilson does not appear in a discussion of the First Amendment as Justice Breyer implied; instead, it appears in a discussion of the novelty and virtue of representative government as opposed to "monarchical, aristocratical
and democratical" forms of government.
John Crevecoeur, a perceptive French immigrant, whose "Letters from an American Farmer'' appeared a half- dozen years after the Declaration, in which he noted that "here are no aristocratical
families, no courts, no kings, no bishops, no ecclesiastical dominion, no invisible power giving to a few a very visible one...''
It is true, in the Case of human Laws and Constitutions a Legislator may be constituted by the Persons, who are to be afterwards (i) obliged by that authority that he himself either wholly, or at least as one of j Community transfers to that Person, as these (k) Persons to whom this Nomothetical Power is thus Transacted; (l) And therefore if we should supose the new erection either of a (m) Kingly or Aristocratical
or Democratical Government, by the paction n or stipulation of any Society or Community of Men; by this paction if I am one of that Community I do together with the rest transfer to this Government a Power to oblige me by the Laws which such o Governors shall make.
The common people, explained one radical evangelist, had followed Jesus even as "the monarchical, aristocratical
and priestly authorities cried 'crucify him!'" (169) When individual spirituality acquired pride of place, traditional clerical authority, much like traditional modes of funding for religious institutions, became vulnerable to a more popular model.
(96) Similarly (though with a different emphasis), Representative Theodore Sedgwick of Massachusetts also connected a probationary time period with shedding "prejudices of education, acquired under monarchical and aristocratical
governments [that] may deprive [potential citizens] of that zest for pure republicanism which is necessary in order to taste its beneficence" and, taking this one step further, with forms of civic knowledge that will make them good citizens.