The markedly dilated GCV drains in to the coronary sinus (Figure 2) and contains multiple atherosclerotic spotty calcifications secondary to chronic systemic arterial pressure (venous arterialization
The presence of a PFO to provide arterialization
of silent bubbles has been considered to be a part of an incomplete "undeserved DCS" puzzle following a safe dive profile or arterial gas embolism without pulmonary barotrauma.
Spectral Doppler analysis shows elevated PSV of over 3 m/s with only the arterial flow component in PA or arterialization
of a venous waveform in AVF.
Due to portal obstruction, schistosomiasis patients present hepatic sinusoidal arterialization
. Consequently, they are more vulnerable to sudden falls in blood pressure due to UGB episodes, developing focal areas of hepatic necrosis.
As reported by Hibi and colleagues, patients who underwent a nonphysiological reconstruction (i.e., CPHT, RPA, and arterialization
) showed not only higher morbidity rates but also shorter 1-, 5-, and 10-year overall survival compared to patients with PVT treated with a physiological approach (p = 0.043) .
This study characterizes the morphological aspects in the early arterialization
of the vascular wall in a vein graft process.
Histopathologic findings include medial hypertrophy and muscularization of arterioles, moderate intimal fibrosis, medial hypertrophy and arterialization
of veins, dilatation of lymphatics, interstitial edema, interstitial fibrosis, and hemosiderosis (Figure 3).
The vessel abnormalities in IMHMV have been reported to resemble histologically failed saphenous vein grafts from patients that have undergone aortocoronary bypass surgery  as well as stenotic arteriovenous fistulas in dialysis patients , suggesting an "arterialization
" of veins due to increased intraluminal pressure.
After implantation, the vein grafts undergo necessary "arterialization
" to adapt to the arterial circulation.
Suresh et al., "Arterialization
and anomalous vein wall remodeling in varicose veins is associated with upregulated FoxC2-Dll4 pathway," Laboratory Investigation, vol.
Few cases of penile revascularization for ischemia using arterialization
of the deep dorsal vein have been reported.
The volunteers' left hand and forearm were immersed in water at 42-44[degrees]C for 8 min to allow for arterialization
of the venous blood (Hadjicharalambous et al., 2008).