MG exhibited hypometabolism in the olfactory bulb, insular cortex, orbital cortex, prelimbic cortex, striatum, parietal association cortex
, visual cortex, cingulate gyrus, and retrosplenial cortex (Table 2 and Figure 3(a)).
These regions include the primary visual cortex and its association cortex
, which translates the information gathered into complex representations.
In addition to mPFC, frontal association cortex
(FrA) is also implicated in higher brain functions, and aberrant FrA activity is proposed to be involved in dementia pathology [24, 25].
In clinical studies of AD and MCI, metabolic imaging with FDG-PET [52, 53] and SPECT [54, 55] have highlighted loss of activity in temporal, parietal, and frontal association cortex
, along with PCC and precuneus.
ACC, anterior cingulate cortex; SSAC, somatosensory association cortex
; VAC, visual association cortex
; CV, cerebellar vermis; VC, visual cortex; IPL, inferior parietal lobule; FP, frontal pole; IFG, inferior frontal gyrus; PT, pars triangularis; PSMA, premotor area/supplementary motor area; PMC, primary motor cortex; FEF, frontal eye field; dl-PFC, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; AG, angular gyrus; FC, fusiform gyrus; ITG, inferior temporal gyrus; TP, temporal pole.
When compared to the SC group, the EB group had significantly lower VMHC in primary visual cortex, visual association cortex
, and somatosensory association cortex
(P < 0.05).
The hypothalamus can influence or override more complex adaptive behaviour because of its close links with two important structures: the limbic system and the association cortex
of the frontal lobe (orbital part).
Fulton (1899-1960) presented his experiment: following the resection of the frontal cortex in two chimpanzees, they became "devoid of emotional expression", and the resection of the anterior frontal association cortex
succeeded in calming behavioural changes (31).
Neuroanatomical views were also changing regarding "association cortex
." After years of research, Diamond and colleagues concluded there was no association cortex
and that the cortex is best mapped only as sensory areas.