Happiness, and the proper goal of human life, consists in pleasure, by which he meant the tranquillity (ataraxia
) of mind and body which arises when our mental and physical wants are satisfied.
(8) In discussing the varieties of autonomy (e.g., self-control, power in the world, psychological independence, having moral rights, authenticity), Nomy Arpaly thinks that Stoic ataraxia
is best understood as a kind of "heroic autonomy," since ideally only the Stoic sage would exhibit the capacity to act such that externals or indifferents (adiaphora) (e.g., wealth, fame, education) exercise no influence, though some indifferents are preferred (e.g., health) while others are not (e.g., poverty); see Nomy Arpaly, Unprincipled Virtue: An Inquiry into Moral Agency (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003), p.
A non-exhaustive smattering of additional possible spokes are crudeness, nostalgia, mercurial nature, callosity, slave to fashion, emotional and social intelligences, forcibility, mansuetude, proneness to alfresco, arrogance, delusional self-concept, jocosity, Type A personality, defense mechanism usage, impostorism, ataraxia
, verbosity, venality, cowardice, Machiavellianism, level headedness, daftness, daredeviltry, intemperance, vainglory, psychopathy, depression, narcolepsy, haughtiness, susceptibility to hypnosis, pushiness, boorishness, fretfulness, ad infinitum.
E importante entender que a calma, que tenho atribuido a Caeiro, nao e a ausencia de sentimentos, nao e ataraxia
. Boecio, no seu Consolacao da Filosofia, 1,7, ja havia dito que, quando se "estas agitado de temor ou esperanca, e preciso seres calmo".
The Athenian Epicurus' teachings went in another direction: the goal was 'ataraxia
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"The White Ship," to Joshi, is also an allegorical retelling of the "folly of abandoning the Epicurean goal of ataraxia
, tranquility (interpreted as the absence of pain)" (I Am Providence I.339).
"You can't flip a switch and make it happen overnight, but if this legislation were to pass, all of us would definitely expand," said Ross Morreale, co-founder of Ataraxia
, which owns a cultivation facility in southern Illinois and co-owns dispensaries in several neighborhoods.
Se voltarmos para o percurso historico da Filosofia, essa tendencia e antiga: ela remonta a Pitagoras, que requisitava o silencio como condicao facilitadora de ataraxia
, isto e, de tranquilidade e repouso da alma.