Its advantages are that it can be harvested through same post aural or endaural incision of tympanoplasty, available in sufficient amount, its basal metabolic rate and thickness have great resemblance with TM.5 However the drawbacks of fascia graft are high failure rate in atelectatic
drum, retraction pocket, subtotal or total perforation and malfunctioning eustachian tube.
The left lower lung lobe was atelectatic
. Two large cystic
In the thorax CT examination of the patient, however, free fluid accumulation was determined in consolidation area involving air bronchogram in lower lobe of right lung and amid pleural leaves in the right hemithorax and atelectatic
area in the right medium lobe (Figure 2).
Chest CT was performed for further evaluation of the lungs and major vessels in the neck, which revealed multiple bilateral lung consolidations and atelectatic
changes and filling defects in the segmental branches of the pulmonary arteries in keeping with pulmonary embolism [Figure 2].
(6,7) However, fascia and perichondrium appear to undergo atrophy and subsequently fail in the reconstruction of high-risk perforations, (8) such as total or subtotal atelectatic
perforations, those with cholesteatoma, and revision cases.
Atelectrauma is defined as lung injury caused by high shear forces from cyclic opening and collapse of atelectatic
but recruitable lung units.
In addition, atelectatic
changes with surfactant dysfunction were also shown to occur after pulmonary contusion.
More recently, the use of cartilage has been increasingly described for the reconstruction of large portions of pars tensa of the tympanic membrane and also in atelectatic
ears and revision surgery.
* e.g., atelectatic
TM elevated but not reconstructed; perforation present, but surgeon chose not to repair; or previous cartilage tympanoplasty
Reopening of an atelectatic
area requires energy, and breathing becomes labored.
Ozdem, "Long-term anatomic and functional results of cartilage tympanoplasty in atelectatic
ears," European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, vol.
The upper lobe is totally destroyed, the middle lobe is fibrotic, and the lower lobe is atelectatic