Cytokines rise and as the intestinal protein metabolites increase, there is insulin resistance, suppression of erythropoiesis, premature cellular senescence, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and enhanced atherogenesis
, and vascular calcification (Rossi, 2014).
sup] ECs apoptosis can break the integrity and barrier function of endothelium and compromise the ability of endothelium to regulate lipid homeostasis, immunity, and inflammation, causing atherogenesis
The evaluation of novel active substances requires the establishment of reliable models of atherogenesis
Formation of fatty streak, the earliest phase of atherogenesis
involves recruitment of leucocytes due to expression of leucocyte adhesion molecule on endothelial cells in turn triggered by primary proinflammatory cytokines (4).
Several studies have revealed that atherogenesis
is highly accelerated by upregulated inflammation and autoimmune attacks in high-grade inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and SLE.
6] Endothelial vasodilator dysfunction is a key feature of atherogenesis
Evidence indicates that the fatty and inflamed liver expresses several pro-inflammatory and procoagulant factors, as well as genes involved in accelerated atherogenesis
, explained lead investigator Raluca Pais, MD, PhD, of the Pierre and Marie Curie University, INSERM, and the CDR Saint Antoine, Institute of Cardiometabolism and Nutrition (ICAN), Paris, France.
The role of collagens in atherogenesis
Because previous studies have identified cleaved caspase-3 in both human  and mouse  atherosclerotic plaques, where it colocalizes with dead macrophages and lipid-rich plaque components , we aimed to investigate the impact of caspase-3 deletion on atherogenesis
by crossbreeding caspase-3 knockout ([Casp3.
Influenza has been hypothesized to cause coronary artery occlusion through stenosis of subcritical atherosclerotic plaque, and it has been shown to promote atherogenesis
in animal models.
New findings that the avenanthramides (AVE) contained in oats may reduce the risk of atherogenesis
(plaque formation in the arteries) further confirm them as a so-called 'superfood.
Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease (Lusis, 2000) and the main hypotheses of atherogenesis
described in the last decades are the reverse cholesterol transport (Zhang et al.