or rhinitis is a general term for respiratory illness in swine.
is caused by serotype D in pigs (Marina et al., 2006).
Brehmer, "Rhinitis sicca, dry nose and atrophic rhinitis
: a review of the literature," European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, vol.
(AR) is a chronic nasal disease that is characterized by progressive atrophy of the nasal mucosa and underlying bone of the turbinates and the presence of a viscid secretion that emits a characteristic foul odor sometimes called ozena (a stench).
Characterization and comparison of Pasteurella multocida strains associated with porcine pneumonia and atrophic rhinitis
. Journal of Medical Microbiology 52: 59-67.
However IT remains controversial because of the bleeding associated with this its effects on nasal physiology and fear of subsequent rhinitis sicca and secondary atrophic rhinitis
bronchiseptica can cause pneumonia and atrophic rhinitis
in growing pigs [3-9].
Rhinological manifestations included adenoid hypertrophy/ hyperplasia (41.56%; n = 64), allergy-like symptoms (12.34%; n = 19), sinusitis (7.79%; n = 12), epistaxis (3.9%; n = 6), atrophic rhinitis
(nose bleeding) (2.6%; n = 4), nasal polyposis (2.6%; n = 4), septal perforations (1.3%; n = 2) and nasal neoplasm (inverting papilloma) (0.65%; n = 1) (Fig.
Rhinoliths cause rhinitis which may lead to complications including nasal polyps, atrophic rhinitis
, septal perforation and oroantral fistula (2).