Following CBI and CLIL are the perhaps surprising choices of the Direct Method (DM) and the Audio-Lingual
Method (ALM), both methods readers might be forgiven for thinking were historical and not methodologies of choice today, and which have attracted a deal of criticism over the years fa their narrowness of approach.
In this chapter, the author provides a historical review of the major methods (grammar-translation, the direct method, the audio-lingual
method, communicative approaches, cognitive approach, affective methods, the proficiency movement) for teaching second languages.
The workbook-- The workbook and flashcards contained pictures and large photo that reflected the cards derived from vocabulary taught.
The role of English Grammar Instruction in a second/foreign language class in the United States has changed drastically in the last forty years as the favored methodology changed from grammar-translation to audio-lingual
, then from audio-lingual
to cognitive, and finally from cognitive to communicative approaches.
In this context, direct method was replaced by audio-lingual
method in order to get rapid result.
The author stresses that multi-dimensional approaches of communicative vocabulary teaching, lexical phrase teaching method, the grammar translation approach as well as audio-lingual
method should be adopted, tasks should be designed and context be constructed to improve learners' vocabulary acquiring competence and language competence.
Among the neuropsychological peculiarities characterizing the functions of the right subcortical-frontal region such audio-lingual
memory parameters as recall order, selective recall, and the presence of contamination in recalled material were evaluated.
Army method--later also called the FSI method--was the precursor of the audio-lingual
, or drill and kill, method.
The contrast between learning and acquisition is perhaps most clearly illustrated by juxtaposing the Audio-Lingual
Method with Communicative Language Teaching.
This textbook is organized along similar lines of development which focus on dialogue, brief presentation of grammatical principle, a wealth of exercises designed to develop understanding, the ability to manipulate linguistic structures and to adapt them to different circumstances, and mastery of pronunciation and vocabulary." Gaetano Cipolla achieves these goals in a very extraordinary manner by means of fusing these four skills within each chapter quite effortlessly, particularly since he is a product of the "audio-lingual
method" established in the early 1960's.