The autoimmune mechanisms leading to EIMs have been suggested to be related to many factors, including genetic susceptibility, antigenic display of autoantigen
, aberrant self-recognition, and immunopathogenetic autoantibodies against organ-specific cellular antigens shared by the colon and extra-colonic organs.
The cation efflux transporter ZnT8 (Slc30A8) is a major autoantigen
in human type 1 diabetes.
Kobayashi K, Kishi M, Atsumi T, Bertolaccini ML, Makino H, Sakairi N, et al: Circulating oxidized LDL forms complexes with beta2glycoprotein I: implication as an atherogenic autoantigen
. J lipid Res.
It indicated that the 120,000 a-fodrin molecule may be an important autoantigen
in the pathogenesis of SS.
The first is cathelicidin (LL37), derived from keratinocyte and may be considered as an autoantigen
since it is an antimicrobial peptide.
Autoimmunity is triggered by cPR-3(105-201), a protein complementary to human autoantigen
Recently, the M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R), expressed in podocytes, has been identified as the autoantigen
They also found that CD4 memory T-cell clones from lupus patients that were specific to R06O autoantigen
were stimulated by Ro60-containing bacteria.
lactis delivering the autoantigen
human proinsulin and tolerance-enhancing cytokine IL-10, is designed to reduce T1D pathology by re-establishing immunological tolerance to islet antigens via the production of regulatory T-cells.
The autoantibodies were reported to recognize bone tissue transglutaminase (TTG) as the autoantigen
of interest; however, their titers subsided following the adoption of a gluten-free diet (13).
For example, the presence of polymyositis/scleroderma autoantigen
2 (PM/Scl2), a highly specific nuclear autoantigen
, indicates that exosomes may be involved in triggering autoimmunity.