The latter can cause hyperthyroidism and a decline in autocrine
It has been reported that induction of autocrine
production of IL-6 is responsible for interferon alpha-induced growth in MM cells (21).
UVA induced autocrine
stimulation of fibroblast-derived collagenase/MMP by interrelated loops of interleeutin-1 and interleukin-6.
Over the last decade, however, numerous studies have demonstrated that WAT is a dynamically active endocrine organ that can produce and secrete biologically active peptides and proteins called adipokines, which have autocrine
, paracrine, and endocrine actions.
DAG then stimulates the genetic machinery of immune cell producing growth hormone which when released from immune cells acts on neighbouring immune cells in autocrine
or paracrine fashion14.
The growth of hybridoma cells is dependent on internal and autocrine
factors present in the cell culture media (McKeehan et al.
Adipokines released from adipose tissue act via a network of endocrine, paracrine and autocrine
pathways, and playing very important role in variety of physiological aspects, such as cardiovascular functions, lipid and glucose metabolism, immunity, neuroendocrine function and reproduction (Shankar et al.
It acted in both an autocrine
and a paracrine manner to protect cells from the Zika virus.
The higher expression of RAAS is to be found in the human adipose tissue, components that may play a paracrine, autocrine
, and/or endocrine role in the relationship between obesity/MS and hypertension.
These proteins are synthesized in a great variety of tissues acting as an autocrine
or paracrine mediator in microenvironment signaling (GUPTA, 2001).
1,2 IL-6 being an acute phase reactant is also considered a proinflammatory cytokine, which is involved in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease through autocrine
, paracrine, and endocrine mechanisms.
Comparison of the amino acid sequences of SPINK1 and epidermal growth factor (EGF) revealed similarity (6), and on the basis of this finding it has been proposed that SPINK1 may function as an autocrine
or paracrine growth factor.