This method utilises the signalling of a class of plant hormones known as auxins
to rapidly deplete individual proteins from cells.
Caulerpin, a dimer of indole-3-acrylic acid, behaves much like the indole auxins
Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) is one of the most effective and widely used auxins
for vegetative shoot production by cuttings, exhibiting low toxicity, low mobility, and high chemical stability (Hartmann et al., 2011).
In contrast to this, some scientists also reported direct mechanisms including production of plant growth regulators (PGRs) i.e., auxins
, gibberellins, cytokinins and polyamines which are involved in stimulation of plant growth at various stages, resulting in the improved nutrient uptake by plants especially phosphorus, facilitating nitrogen fixation thus helping the ion uptake or transport systems in plants (Ahmed and Hasnain, 2010; Bashan and De-Bashan, 2010; Taiwo et al., 2016).
(2010), the root growth process is regulated by hormonal factors, where auxins
are responsible for cell division, while cytokines act in cell differentiation.
Development of soybean cultivars with resistance to synthetics auxins
is an important technology and are strategic additional tools to combat herbicide-resistant weeds and others broadleaf weeds problem (SPAUNHORST & SIEFERT-HIGGINS; 2014).
Plant growth regulators, such as auxins
, have been also commonly used and considered essential for rooting cuttings, and auxin
is considered essential for rooting semihardwood olive cuttings (Oliveira et al., 2009).
The differentiation and growth control of in vitro tissue cultures is ascribed to the balance between auxins
and cytokinins, which yield enhanced development when utilized in adequate dosages (REZENDE et al., 2011).
The leaves influence the rooting of cuttings (Hartmann et al., 2002) because they are a source of photoassimilates, auxins
and other vital substances for rooting, however, the leaves provide a large surface from which the cuttings lose water through transpiration (Mesen, 1998).
are very helpful to overcome difficulties in cuttings for root induction.
Florpyrauxifen-benzyl (Rinskor Active) is a new active ingredient in the arylpicolinate herbicide family and represents the second herbicide (the other one being halauxifenmethyl) in the new structural class of synthetic auxins
having a unique receptor binding activity [12, 13].
The exogenous use of auxins
on stem cuttings for vegetative propagation has been successfully developed in much conservation prioritized (rare, endangered, and threatened) and commercially valuable plants such as Pongamia pinnata , Ginkgo biloba , Hildegardia populifolia , Panax pseudoginseng , and Dillenia suffruticosa .