Subjects in the derived extinction group were exposed to the derived aversive stimulus
(C1) repeatedly in extinction.
Social negative reinforcement occurs when an aversive stimulus
or situation is terminated by another individual contingent on a behavior and the behavior is strengthened.
The hope is that the pairing of the undesirable stimulus with the aversive stimulus
creates an avoidance response to the undesirable stimulus (Cautela, 1967).
Second, it is likely that exposure to the trained aversive stimulus
may attenuate the aversive functions of other stimuli in the relational network.
Acceptance can be promoted by directly targeting the function of an aversive stimulus
Since choice of the former schedule permitted almost continuous viewing, choice of the latter imposed a virtual timeout from positive reinforcement, a condition that would be expected to function as an aversive stimulus
and promote escape or avoidance responding (e.
For instance, if stimulus C in the foregoing example is paired with an aversive stimulus
such as electric shock, then B and A may also acquire the fear eliciting functions based on their relation to C.
Positive punishment involves the application of an aversive stimulus
, after an undesirable behavior, that results in the reduction of the probability of recurrence of that behavior.
Together these results may be conceptualized by a negative reinforcement and avoidance paradigm (Hineline, 1977) whereby a losing trial is an aversive stimulus
that results in the participant initiating the onset of the next trial at a faster rate (shorter latency) to escape the continued presentation of that aversive stimulus
Although the conditioning data is of interest, of greater importance is the transfer of function data in which participants were presented with compound stimuli that had never been directly paired with an aversive stimulus
, but which were related to the CS+ via derived relations.
In both humans and nonhumans aggressive and/or escape responses occur at increased probability following aversive stimulus
presentation (Azrin, Hutchinson, & Hake, 1967; Cherek & Dougherty, 1997).
The results from this experiment are consistent with findings from nonhuman studies which have shown that the frequency of both aggressive and escape responding is directly proportionate to the frequency or duration of aversive stimulus