towards smoking, aversiveness
towards tobacco, and current smoking rate--to represent adolescents' attitudes towards the risky behavior of smoking--the dependent variables in the proposed model.
For the PHAB, the only condition in which directional was rated significantly better than omnidirectional was the aversiveness
subscale, on which a subject rates the degree to which sounds (especially loud sounds) are bothersome.
In this way, the aversiveness
of the teaching environment is reduced and therefore less likely to evoke escape and avoidance responses (Kemp & Carr, 1995).
In this situation, these goal statements will relate a multitude of events in the ongoing environment to the eventuality of experiencing anxiety and thereby potentially increase the perceived aversiveness
of that environment, a process that may ultimately fuel anxiety.
First, pairing of preferred edibles with non-preferred demands may have reduced the aversiveness
of the demands (e.
After identifying the function of Meredith's SIB and aggression, a stimulus preference assessment was conducted based on procedures described by Fisher et al (1992) to identify specific items that might be utilized during an intervention designed to lessen the aversiveness
of task demands.
In order to reduce the aversiveness
of the restudy, they instituted a conditional pass when the answer did not quite meet mastery criteria, but was close.
A trend toward greater subjective success for the LA fittings can be seen in Figure 7 (except in the PHAB aversiveness
subscale, where the trend was for less aversiveness
for WDRMCC), but none of the differences between the groups of LA and WDRMCC users was significant in Kruskal-Wallis tests for either questionnaire (at phase 1 week 2, 8, 32, or all three combined).
Current literature on adult survivors of child sexual abuse suggests that the aversiveness
of the experience may lead some victims to engage in active strategies to avoid reminders of the traumatic events, and ultimately, memories of the event (Briere, 1992).
is measured by a single item: "Which of the statements .
Withholding treatment on the basis of presumed aversiveness
raises ethical issues in its own right, however, because severe behavior disorders, left untreated, may cause pain or harm to the untreated individual, or to others in that individual's environment (Schopp, 1984).
It is also possible that a period of noncontingcnt reinforcement functions to reduce the aversiveness
of demands such that the demands no longer evoke escape-motivated noncompliance.