, a glycopeptides analogue of vancomycin, is related to the high prevalence of VRE in animals and a source of transmitting VRE to healthy people having no hospital exposure.21 In 1933, the first report about VRE occurrence in a non-human source was published.
used as a growth promoter is associated with the occurrence of vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium in Danish poultry and pig farms.
In 1993, the first studies showing a relationship between the use of avoparcin
and an increment and transmission of vancomycin-resistant enterococci, the same antibiotic group (glycopeptides), arises.
An example is the decrease in vancomycin-resistant enterococci carriage among healthy people in the Netherlands and Germany after avoparcin
Historical examples of this cause-effect relationship include the following: the application of avoparcin
in poultry and swine production and the emergence of glycopeptide-resistant enterococci , the use of virginiamycin in the same species and the development of quinupristin-dalfopristin resistance , and the usage of tylosin with the concomitant dissemination of erythromycin-resistant bacteria in Scandinavian countries , to cite just a few examples.
, growth promoter and homologue of vancomycin, is extensively used in animal husbandry and agricultural industry .
For example, avoparcin
and virginiamycin, considered 'animal-only' antibiotics, could select strains resistant to drugs recently approved for humans." Id.
Additionally, studies comparing resistance prevalence in both humans and animals before and after AGP bans have documented significant decreases in resistance (primarily in vancomycin-resistant enterococci following the ban of avoparcin
as a growth promoter) (Aarestrup et al., 2001; Bager et al..
Their work uncovered a clear relationship between the use of the antibiotic avoparcin
and the widespread occurrence of resistant bacteria.
Spais, "Effect of the dietary inclusion of the growth promoter avoparcin
on the performance and carcass characteristics of growing quail," Animal Feed Science and Technology, vol.
(2) Supplied per kilogram of diet: riboflavin, 8.0 mg; niacin, 50 mg; pantothenic acid, 15 mg; 50% cholinechloride, 1,000 mg; cobalamin, 15 [micro]g; cholecalciferol, 82.5 [micro]g; vitamin E (DL-[alpha]-tocophery acetate), 25 IU; vitaminA (trans-retinyl acetate), 10,000 IU; biotin, 0.1 mg; folic acid, 0.75 mg; Fe[SO.sub.4] x 7[H.sub.2]O, 300 mg; MnO, 100 mg; Cu[SO.sub.4] x 5[H.sub.2]O, 20 mg; Zn[SO.sub.4], 150 mg; [Na.sub.2]Se[O.sub.3] x 5[H.sub.2]O, 0.15 mg; KI, 0.5 mg; ethoxyquin, 100 mg; avoparcin
, 15 mg.
In 1975, avoparcin
was approved as a food additive and growth promoter in many countries worldwide, including the European Union, but not in Sweden, the United States, or Canada (van den Bogaard & Stobberingh, 2000; Hammerum et al., 2010).