used as a growth promoter is associated with the occurrence of vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium in Danish poultry and pig farms.
In 1993, the first studies showing a relationship between the use of avoparcin
and an increment and transmission of vancomycin-resistant enterococci, the same antibiotic group (glycopeptides), arises.
An example is the decrease in vancomycin-resistant enterococci carriage among healthy people in the Netherlands and Germany after avoparcin
For example, avoparcin
and virginiamycin, considered 'animal-only' antibiotics, could select strains resistant to drugs recently approved for humans.
Additionally, studies comparing resistance prevalence in both humans and animals before and after AGP bans have documented significant decreases in resistance (primarily in vancomycin-resistant enterococci following the ban of avoparcin
as a growth promoter) (Aarestrup et al.
Their work uncovered a clear relationship between the use of the antibiotic avoparcin
and the widespread occurrence of resistant bacteria.
Spais, "Effect of the dietary inclusion of the growth promoter avoparcin
on the performance and carcass characteristics of growing quail," Animal Feed Science and Technology, vol.
In 1975, avoparcin
was approved as a food additive and growth promoter in many countries worldwide, including the European Union, but not in Sweden, the United States, or Canada (van den Bogaard & Stobberingh, 2000; Hammerum et al.
used as a growth promoter is associated with the occurrence of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium on Danish poultry and pig farms.
In Europe, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) is a widespread environmental contaminant, where its emergence has been linked to agricultural use of avoparcin
, an antibiotic closely related to vancomycin.
causes cross-resistance to vancomycin and teicoplanin among bacteria (21).
and monensin effects on the digestion of nutrients in dairy cows fed a mixed diet.