Axial SpA, which is comprised of AS and nr-axSpA, is the main form of chronic inflammatory arthritis affecting the axial skeleton
. This condition is characterized by back and hip pain, peripheral joint pain, and fatigue, all of which can vary in severity.
In this context, the axial skeleton
and pelvic brim are most commonly involved, with thoracolumbar spinal and sacral fractures representing the most commonly encountered pathologies.
shows ovoid vertebral bodies, severe platyspondyly, hypoplasia of odontoid process (which results in atlantoaxial instability that can cause cervical myelopathy), progressive kyphoscoliosis (short trunk) involving thoracic and lumbar spine, narrowing of disk spaces (resulting in short trunk), broad iliac bases, deficient ossification of pubis and flat acetabular roof.
This two-volume set contains 67 chapters by orthopedic surgeons and other specialists from North America, Europe, India, and Australia, who discuss aspects of fractures in adults, including basic principles, the principles and biomechanics of fracture treatments, management principles, and complications and adverse outcomes, and injuries of the upper and lower extremity, axial skeleton
, pelvis, and acetabulum, with information on assessment, anatomy, treatment options, the author's preferred treatment, management of special situations, expected adverse outcomes, unexpected complications, and controversies and future directions.
The girdles are well preserved and are covered medially by the axial skeleton
(Figures 2 and 6A).
Acknowledging some limitations of the study, the researchers said that the results suggest that most pregnant women with PsA experience low levels of disease activity, and recommended that future research on pregnancy in women with PsA should include assessment of psoriasis, extended joint count, dactylitis, entheses, and axial skeleton
Multiple myeloma is characterized clinically by osseous involvement favoring the axial skeleton
with associated pain and sequelae, hypercalcemia, chronic renal insufficiency, anemia, and the presence of monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig, M protein) in serum and/or urine.
Uniform size, symmetrical periarticular distribution with a normal bone scan or slightly increased activity, normal alkaline and acid phosphatase help to differentiate osteopoikilosis from osteoblastic metastasis where there is asymmetry, axial skeleton
involvement, bony destruction, and positive bone scan.
SpAs are a group of disorders characterized by positive Human Leukocyte Antigene-B27 (HLA-B27) and inflammation of the axial skeleton
or peripheral joints.
The axial skeleton
development started with the formation of neural arches at 3.64 +- 0.07 mm (10 DPH) and ossification of axial skeleton
completed at 11.01 +- 0.88 mm (24 DPH).
Osteoprosis is diagnose by measuring BMD of the central and axial skeleton
. This scan is done on an open x-ray table as compared to tunnel or ring for MRI and CT scan.
It may involve one, two (bimelic), three or all four (tetramelic) limbs and the axial skeleton