a. To unite (a shoot or bud) with a growing plant by insertion or by placing in close contact.
b. To join (a plant or plants) by such union.
2. To transplant or implant (living tissue, for example) surgically into a bodily part to replace a damaged part or compensate for a defect.
3. To join or unite closely: graft new customs onto old.
1. To make a graft.
2. To be or become joined.
a. A detached shoot or bud united or to be united with a growing plant.
b. The union or point of union of a detached shoot or bud with a growing plant by insertion or attachment.
c. A plant produced by such union.
a. Material, especially living tissue or an organ, surgically attached to or inserted into a bodily part to replace a damaged part or compensate for a defect.
b. The procedure of implanting or transplanting such material.
c. The configuration or condition resulting from such a procedure.
[Middle English graften, alteration of graffen, probably from Old French grafier, from graffe, stylus, graft (from its shape), from Latin graphium, stylus; see graffito. N., Middle English grafte, alteration of graffe, from Old French.]
1. Deceitful or fraudulent use of one's position, especially in public office, to obtain personal profits or advantages.
2. Money or advantage obtained by such means.
intr.v.graft·ed, graft·ing, grafts
To gain money or advantage through deceit or fraud.
a. a bud, shoot, or scion of a plant inserted in a groove, slit, or the like in a stem or trunk of another plant in which it continues to grow.
b. the plant resulting from such an operation.
c. the place where the scion is inserted
2. a portion of living tissue surgically transplanted from one part of an individual to another, or from one individual to another, for its adhesion and growth.
3. an act of grafting.
4. to insert (a graft) into a tree or other plant; insert a scion of (one plant) into another plant.
5. to cause (a plant) to reproduce through grafting.
6. to transplant (a portion of living tissue, as of skin or bone) as a graft.
7. to attach as if by grafting.
8. to insert scions from one plant into another.
9. to become grafted.
[1350–1400; < Old French graffe, greffe < Late Latin graphium hunting knife (Latin: stylus) < Greek grapheîon, derivative of gráphein to write; so called from the resemblance of the point of a (cleft) graft to a stylus]
1. the acquisition of money or advantage by dishonest or unfair means, esp. through the abuse of one's position or influence, as in politics.
1. A shoot or bud of one plant that is inserted into or joined to the stem, branch, or root of another plant so that the two grow together as a single plant. Grafts are used to strengthen or repair plants, create dwarf trees, produce seedless fruit, and increase fruit yields without requiring plants to mature from seeds.
2. A transplant of body tissue, especially skin or bone, from one part to another.
1. To join a graft to another plant.
2. To transplant tissue from one part of the body to another.
line one’s pockets To profit, especially at the expense of others; to receive money or other favors through bribery, blackmail, or graft. This expression reputedly stems from the English tailor who, hoping to become the clothes designer for the famous fashion plate, Beau Brummel (1778-1840), sent him an ornate coat, the pockets of which were lined with money. Although Beau sent a letter of thanks and added that he especially admired the lining, it is not known whether the tailor received any more of his business.
pork barrel Legislation providing federal funding for local projects designed to put congressmen in the good graces of their constituents. Thus, the pork barrel is, metaphorically speaking, the federal treasury viewed as a source of monies for “pet” local projects. The connection between this figurative, political sense of pork barrel and the literal keg is not clear, although it may derive from pork considered as fat, a slang term for excess wealth, riches. Use of this U.S. slang expression is restricted to politics and dates from the early part of this century.
The River and Harbor bill is the pork barrel par excellence, and the rivers and harbors are manipulated by Federal machinery and not by State machinery. (The New York Evening Post, May, 1916)
shoe one’s mule To embezzle; to misuse or steal money entrusted to one’s care and management. Some unscrupulous blacksmiths and grooms reputedly once engaged in the fraudulent practice of charging a horse (or mule) owner for shoeing the steed, and then either kept the money without performing the promised work, or used the money to buy shoes for their own animals.
He had the keeping and disposal of all the moneys, and yet shod not his mule at all. (Sorel’s Comical History of Francion, 1655)
to fix (skin, bone etc) from one part of the body on to or into another part of the body. The doctor treated her burns by grafting skin from her leg on to her back. oorplant طَعْم، تَطْعيم присаждам enxertar transplantovat transplantieren transplantere μεταμοσχεύωinjertar, hacer un injerto siirdama پیوند زدن siirtää greffer לְהַשׁתִיל प्रतिरोपण presaditi, transplantirati átültet (testszövetet) mencangkokkan græða innestare, trapiantare 移植する 이식하다 persodinti (audinį) transplantēt (audus) menggraf transplanteren, overplantentransplantere przeszczepiać پيوند وهل enxertar a grefa, a transplanta пересаживать кожу, кость transplantovať transplantirati kalemiti transplantera การปลูกถ่ายอวัยวะ aşılamak, yamamak 移植 пересаджувати, імплантувати قلم ، پیوند لگانا ghép 移植
a piece of skin, bone etc which is grafted. a skin graft. weefseloorplanting رُقْعَه присадка enxerto transplantát das Transplantat transplantat μόσχευμαinjerto siirdelund پیوند siirrännäinen greffeשתל कलम transplantat átültetés cangkokan ágræðsluskinn/-bein, græðlingur innesto, trapianto 移植組織片 이식용 조직편 persodintas audinys (audu) transplantācija graf transplantaattransplantasjonprzeszczep پيوند enxerto grefă пересадка кожи, кости transplantát presadek kalem transplanterad vävnad, transplantat อวัยวะในร่างกายที่ถูกตัดต่อ yama 移植物 імплантат جلد ، ہڈی وغیرہ کا ٹکڑہ جسے پیوند کے طور پر استعمال کیا گیا ہو cành ghép 移植物
1. dishonesty in obtaining profit or good position. politieke knoeiery إبْتِزاز، كَسْب غَيْر مَشْروع незаконна печалба corrupção korupce die Korruption korruption; bedrageri απατεωνιά soborno, corrupción altkäemaks حق حساب گرفتن lahjonta corruptionשחיתות, שוחד कलम mito, mićenje tisztességtelen mellékkereset, illetéktelen haszon korupsi, menyogok misferli, spilling corruzione 不正利得 부정 이득 kyðininkavimas, papirkinëjimas kukuļņemšana rasuah corruptie; smeergeld, steekpenningen bestikkelse, korrupsjonoszustwo د حق حساب اخيستل corrupçãoвзяточничество korupcia podkupovanje iznuđivanje novca mutor, mygel การฉ้อราษฎร์บังหลวง rüşvet alma, yolsuzluk; rüşvet 貪污 хабар; хабарництво بے ایمانی سے کچھ حاصل کرنا sự hối lộ 贪污
2. hard work. عَمَل شاق зор trabalho esforçado dřina die Plackerei slid; hårdt arbejde σκληρή δουλειά soborno, corrupción töörügamine تلاش زیاد uurastus dure besogneהרכבה कठिन कार्य težak rad nehéz testi munka kerja keras erfiði lavoro つらい仕事 중노동 triûsas kerja keras hard werk, karweihardt arbeidtrud دیړه هسه trabalho esforçado corvoadă упорный труд drina garanje dirinčenje knog, kneg งานหนัก çok çalışma, büyük uğraşı 苦差事 наполеглива праця کڑی محنت công việc nặng nhọc 艰苦工作