Genes including tektin-2 (TEKT2) , dynein axonemal
heavy chain 5 (DNAH5), DNAH11 , heat shock protein-70 , peroxiredoxin-6 , protamine 2  and proteins including vesicle associated membrane protein 4 , outer dense fiber protein (ODF) , a-kinase anchoring protein 4 , calcium and integrin binding 1 , actin beta (ACTB) have been found to be associated with low-motility sperm (asthenospermia) in mice, swine, humans and cattle.
Lipid peroxidation (LPO) leads to the depletion of intracellular ATP causing axonemal
damage, low sperm viability, and increased defects in the mid piece of the sperms.
Transcriptional regulation of an axonemal
central apparatus gene, sperm-associated antigen 6, by a SRY-related high mobility group transcription factor, S-Sox5.
DNAH5 Dynein heavy chain 5, axonemal
. Cilium assembly, cilium movement, determination of left/right asymmetry, heart development.
The interaction between rs17688362 and rs12484954 involves the RNA 5S ribosomal pseudogene 455 (RNA5SP455)/keratin 8 pseudogene 5 (KRT8P5) and the gene dynein axonemal
light chain 4 (DNAL4).
Subsequently, the axonemal
microtubules elongate from the distal end of the outer doublets and the cilium arises .
An immune response that cross-reacts with axonemal
or Schwann cell antigens is elicited and results in damage to the peripheral nerves.
beta heavy chain dynein DNAH9: cDNA sequence, genomic structure, and investigation of its role in primary ciliary dyskinesia.
Usually, the axoneme is formed by nine outer doublet microtubules and two central singlet microtubules (the 9+2 pattern); the active sliding of microtubules by axonemal
dyneins and proper assembly of all cytoskeletal elements is critical for sperm motility (Inaba, 2003).
To identify the factor inducing the flagellar movement of hyperactivated spermatozoa, demembranated spermatozoa that were deprived of their plasma membrane with nonionic detergent Triton X-100 were used because effect of ions and other molecules on the axonemal
movement could be examined directly.
Most of the exons with extremely high coverage (>1400X) appeared to come from a few genes [HYDIN, axonemal
central pair apparatus protein (HYDIN) and lysine (K)specific methyltransferase 2C (KMT2C, also known as MLL3)] and were likely caused by incompleteness (homologous regions not represented) in the hg19 reference genome (see online Supplemental Table 4); we therefore excluded mutations detected in those exons.
Absence of axonemal
arms in nasal mucosa cilia in Kartagener's syndrome.