The localization of RPGRIP1L to the ciliary axoneme
, basal bodies, and centrosome or cytoplasm suggested a shuttling of RPGRIP1L between these different subcellular compartments.
Microscopic analysis revealed an absence of one of the microtubule doublets in three of the outer doublets of the axoneme
, thereby establishing a diagnosis of isolated ciliary dysfunction.
The tail of the sperm is prepared by mitochondria, outer dense fiber (ODF) and axoneme
. The positive results observed in the tail of sperm showed that there is a relationship between the CDC25A protein and the motility of the sperm.
In human sperm, the mitochondrial sheath is organized in a helix of approximately 13 gyres surrounding the axoneme
in the midpiece.
Midpiece (MP) with axoneme
surrounded by round mitochondria (M).
The PC itself is composed of a microtubule-based core structure named the axoneme
, which nucleates from a basal body and is surrounded by a ciliary membrane, which is continuous with the plasmatic membrane (Figure 1).
(2002) Hyperactivated motility of bull sperm is triggered at the axoneme
by [Ca.sup.2+] and not cAMP.
Other ultrastructural defects those lead to ineffective ciliary motility include isolated absence of inner dynein arms or radial spokes, transposition of microtubules to the center of axoneme
, missing nexin links etc., [sup] The clinical diagnosis of PCD is established in:
It has been reported  that the axoneme
and mitochondria in sperms may be damaged by a high level of ROS.
Mean [t.sub.f] Mean fs [+ or -] Mean Seed for microtubule [+ or -] standard standard error assembly error 0.55 [+ or -] 0.09 3.85 [+ or -] 0.57 4.4 Axoneme
- XMAP215 (n = 5) (n = 17) 0.63 [+ or -] 0.11 2.33 [+ or -] 0.37 2.96 Axoneme
+ XMAP215 (n = 6) (n = 11) 0.44 [+ or -] 0.04 0.54 [+ or -] 0.08 0.98 Microtubule fragments (n = 8) (n = 6) Mean [t.sub.f] Reference [+ or -] standard error 0.55 [+ or -] 0.09  (n = 5) 0.63 [+ or -] 0.11  (n = 6) 0.44 [+ or -] 0.04  (n = 8) n: number of samples measured.
A 9 + 9 + 2 axoneme
pattern is the most common pattern within the Curculionidae (Gassner et al.
In addition, cryopreservative protection leads to changes in DNA, sperm cytoskeleton, inhibition of sperm-ovule binding, and destruction of sperm axoneme
, and consequently reduction of its mobility.