Midpiece (MP) with axoneme
surrounded by round mitochondria (M).
2002) Hyperactivated motility of bull sperm is triggered at the axoneme
Other ultrastructural defects those lead to ineffective ciliary motility include isolated absence of inner dynein arms or radial spokes, transposition of microtubules to the center of axoneme
, missing nexin links etc.
A 9 + 9 + 2 axoneme
pattern is the most common pattern within the Curculionidae (Gassner et al.
In addition, cryopreservative protection leads to changes in DNA, sperm cytoskeleton, inhibition of sperm-ovule binding, and destruction of sperm axoneme
, and consequently reduction of its mobility.
These transformed halves elongate and orient themselves on either side of the developing axoneme
ROS increase DNA fragmentations (1), modify the cytoskeleton (15), affect the sperm axoneme
development (9) and inhibit sperm-oocyte fusion.
Arrest of sperm motility is probably due to the chain of reactions induced by reactive oxygen species which can affect sperm axoneme
BELABOR ANIMATO LITOTES ACEROSE SPIVS HUMIC AJIVA GADID SHEDS
The basic structure of nonmotile, primary cilia of the renal tubular cells consists of 9 peripheral microtubular doublets that form the axoneme
, surrounded by a lipid bilayer that is continuous with the cell membrane.
During spermiogenesis, the distal centriole forms the axoneme
of the sperm tail and becomes a vestige, whilst the proximal remains close to its nucleus and is inherited by the embryo (8,9).
The distal centriole begins to develop the axoneme
(thread) that will become the tail (flagellum) of the sperm cell.