It is well known that ice crystal formation in mitochondria and axonemes
during cryopreservation impairs sperm individual motility (Courtens et al., 1989).
McIntosh, "The molecular architecture of axonemes
revealed by cryoelectron tomography," Science, vol.
For instance, ICCD cameras were used to visualize single kinesin motors moving on axonemes
(Vale et al., 1996), the blinking of green fluorescent protein (GFP) molecules (Dickson et al., 1997), and in demonstrating that FI-ATPase is a rotational motor that takes 120-degree steps (Yasuda et al., 1998).
Proteomic analysis of bovine axonemes
exposed to acute alcohol: Role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and heat shock protein 90 in cilia stimulation.
Effect on the motility of intact spermatozoa and on sperm axonemes
(1977) Observations of the structural components of flagellar axonemes
and central pair microtubules from rat sperm.
N = nucleus, ax = tail axonemes
, c = centriolar region, mt = microtubules.
They are composed of central axonemes
containing 9 pairs of micro tubules that form a circle around 2 central micro tubules.
Sisson, "Both cAMP and cGMP are required for maximal ciliary beat stimulation in a cell-free model of bovine ciliary axonemes
," American Journal of Physiology--Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, vol.
Effects on the motility of intact spermatozoa and on sperm axonemes
. J Androl.
Molecular cloning and characterization of a radial spoke head protein of sea urchin sperm axonemes
: involvement of the protein in the regulation of sperm motility.
Trypanosoma cruzi: antigenic composition of axonemes
and flagellar membranes of epimastigotes cultured in vitro.