Organic farming allows the use of herbal preparations, containing naturally-occurring toxins like rotenone, pyrethrins, azadirachtin, nicotine and capsaicin; traditional compounds containing copper and sulfur, and a few synthetic chemical exceptions like methyl bromide as a soil fumigant.
Bioneem[c] caused more than 90% egg mortality (Table 1), and a control efficiency of more than 80% at all concentrations (Figure 2), probably due to the action of azadirachtin and other compounds present in leaves and fruit of the neem tree (MARTINEZ, 2003).
Intramuscular injections with azadirachtin (biological metabolite of the plant Azadirachta indica, which features insecticides) in Oreochromis mossambicus caused significant injuries at cytogenetic level, being the chromosomal breaks a frequent structural anomaly (9).
The tetranortriterpenoid azadirachtin is the most active insecticide component found in neem seeds and leaves (Butterworth & Morgan 1968), and has generated a great deal of interest because of its bioefficacy and biodegradability.
The insecticidal activity of azadirachtin has been demonstrated against numerous cotton insect pests , and its various modes of activity could include disruption of feeding, tobacco based products and garlic extracts .