Before replacing a new permanent catheter, a venography for upper extremities and superior vena cava was performed by interventional radiology and no flow of contrast agent was observed in superior vena cava vein, suggesting an obstruction in vena cava superior vein and right and left juguler vein's blood flows were through azygos
and hemiazygos veins respectively.
Effects of propranolol on azygos
venous blood flow and hepatic and systemic hemodynamics in cirrhosis.
Imaging manifestations of cardiac tamponade include fattening of the walls of the right ventricle and/or atrium, straightening of the interventricular septum, a dilated inferior vena cava, and refux of intravenous contrast material into the inferior vena cava, azygos
, and hepatic veins (Fig.
(3) This phenomenon occurs due to the leakage of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) cement (a rapidly setting bone cement injected under fluoroscopic or CT guidance), (3) through the vertebral venous plexus when injected in an extremely liquid state or by applying excessive pressure, leading to cement migration through the inferior vena cava and the azygos
system to finally reach the pulmonary circulation (pulmonary arteries).
The standard procedure followed at present is right posterolateral thoracotomy by extrapleural approach ligation of Azygos
vein encountered in right lateral aspect of oesophagus arching forward at the level of T4 with the idea of easy access to atretic-oesophageal ends and fistula and also for making anastomosis comfortably.
[4,5] In left atrial isomerism, both atria are morphologically left atria, and are accompanied by left atrial appendages, an interrupted inferior vena cava, two bilobed lungs, enlarged azygos
vein and variable cardiac abnormalities.
More rarely cases of LSIVC, possible routes for the return of blood to RA are via the azygos
vein to SVC, via the left brachiocephalic vein to the right SVC, or via the hemiazygos vein to PLSVC(3).
Blood flow below the occluded site of the IVC returned from the azygos
vein to the superior vena cava via collateral circulation.
Identification of the azygos
vein and its division were performed using the endoscopic vascular stapler device (Endo-Gia device; US Surgical, Norwalk, CT).
Two signs of hemodynamic disturbance: contrast material reflux within the azygos
vein (AV) and within the inferior vena cava (IVC) [abstract].
to the esophageal venous plexus, which is located in the mucosa and submucosa and then over the V.
vein aneurysms are very rare causes of mediastinal masses and are usually described as accidental findings on chest roentgenogram .