Abdominal and pelvic CT revealed polysplenia, midline liver, situs ambiguous, and interrupted inferior vena cava with azygous
continuation (Figures 2 and 3).
5) demonstrates an azygous
anterior cerebral artery.
A computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen/pelvis with intravenous contrast revealed thrombosis of the distal inferior vena cava (IVC) and iliac veins with a congenital absence of suprarenal and intrahepatic segments of the IVC (Fig1&2) with extensive collaterals and prominent ascending lumbar, perivertebral, azygous
and hemiazygous venous systems.
Dilated and tortuous azygous
& hemiazygous veins (Fig.
Absence of the spleen or the finding of polysplenia can alert the surgeon to the presence of important associated anomalies such as malrotation, preduodenal portal vein, and interrupted inferior vena cava with azygous
The team's system of rating the degree of venous narrowing on MR images of the azygous
and jugular veins yields comparable results when performed by different individuals.
These were categorized based on the following echocardiographic criteria: a diagnosis of left atrial isomerism was made if there was an interrupted inferior caval vein with azygous
continuation and anterior located descending aorta according to azygous
vein, and a diagnosis of right atrial isomerism was made if the inferior caval vein and aorta was both located on the right or left side of the spine in parallel anteroposterior orientation (8,9).
The thoracic duct originates at the body of L2 from a triangular dilatation called cisterna chyli, passes posterior to the median arcuate ligament through the aortic hiatus of the diaphragm, and then travels in the posterior mediastinum of the right hemithorax, just anterior to the vertebral column, between the azygous
vein and the aorta (Figure 4).
Nausea and syncope are due to low cardiac output following inferior caval compression at the bifurcation (complete in 90%, with variable patency of collateral ascending lumbar and spinal canal veins to the azygous
veins), while the foetal effects (4,5), including foetal heart rate changes irrespective of the presence or absence of maternal hypotension (6), are also secondary to aortoiliac displacement (usually to the left) and aortoiliac compression (most marked across the lumbar lordosis at L3-5 and exaggerated by uterine contraction) (7,8).
bounced back to form with a game victory at Folkestone last time and a 6lb penalty might not stop him following up in the friday-ad.
MORNING rain almost led to the withdrawal of Azygous
in the opening sprinth and icap at Folkestone, but trainer Jon Akehurst held his nerve and was rewarded as Alan Munro brought the five-year-old home a length clear of the field.
Rider Ashley Hamblett got Dodaa settled and he just had to be given a nudge turning for home before the 9-2 shot lengthened away to beat Azygous
seven lengths in a time well below standard.