2) With severe SVC baffle obstruction, a dilated azygous
system can be sought.
There was one patient with complete absence of IVC with azygous
It continues between the aorta and azygous
vein until it reaches the fifth thoracic vertebrae.
Lt sided IVC was found draining in hepatic sinusoids on Rt side and ultimately draining in right atrium (RA) via hepatic veins, Rt sided IVC was draining in RSVC via Azygous
Wallace, "Absence of hepatic segment of the inferior vena cava with azygous
continuation," Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, vol.
4,8) The possible complications of surgery may include the possibility of esophageal perforation, leak, injury to the azygous
vein, vagal nerve, or sympathetic trunk, and esophageal stenosis or diverticula, and a risk of recurrence in case of incomplete excision.
7 Skin metastasis thought to involve hematogenous spread where pulmonary circulation and filtration can be theoretically bypassed via the azygous
venous and vertebral venous system via Batson's plexus, allowing skin implantation.
5) demonstrates an azygous
anterior cerebral artery.
A computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen/pelvis with intravenous contrast revealed thrombosis of the distal inferior vena cava (IVC) and iliac veins with a congenital absence of suprarenal and intrahepatic segments of the IVC (Fig1&2) with extensive collaterals and prominent ascending lumbar, perivertebral, azygous
and hemiazygous venous systems.
Absence of hepatic segment of inferior vena cava with azygous
3) An LSGB may also be associated with other significant liver and vascular anomalies including a preduodenal portal vein, azygous
continuation of the inferior vena cava, anomalous intrahepatic branching of the portal vein, absence of the quadrate lobe or an accessory liver.
Absence of the spleen or the finding of polysplenia can alert the surgeon to the presence of important associated anomalies such as malrotation, preduodenal portal vein, and interrupted inferior vena cava with azygous