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back 1

a. The part of the trunk of the human body along and to the sides of the spine between the neck and the pelvis; the dorsum.
b. The analogous dorsal region in other animals.
2. The backbone or spine.
3. The part or area farthest from the front.
4. The part opposite to or behind that adapted for view or use: the back of the hand; wrote on the back of the photograph.
5. The reverse side, as of a coin.
6. A part that supports or strengthens from the rear: the back of a couch.
a. The part of a book where the pages are stitched or glued together into the binding.
b. The binding itself.
8. Sports
a. A player who takes a position behind the front line of other players in certain games, such as football and soccer.
b. In swimming, backstroke.
v. backed, back·ing, backs
1. To cause to move backward or in a reverse direction: Back the car up and then make the turn.
2. To furnish or strengthen with a back or backing.
a. To provide with financial or material support: Unions backed the pro-labor candidate.
b. To lend moral support to, as by corroborating a claim. Often used with up: I'm not comfortable filing a complaint if you won't back me up.
c. To be in favor of; endorse or advocate: backed the reform proposal. See Synonyms at support.
4. To provide with musical accompaniment. Often used with up.
5. To bet or wager on.
6. To adduce evidence in support of; substantiate: backed the argument with facts.
7. To form the back or background of: Snowcapped mountains back the village.
1. To move backward: backed out of the garage.
2. To shift to a counterclockwise direction. Used of the wind.
1. Located or placed in the rear: Deliveries should be made at the back entrance.
2. Distant from a center of activity; remote.
3. Of a past date; not current: a back issue of a periodical.
4. Being owed or due from an earlier time; in arrears: back pay.
5. Being in a backward direction: a back step.
6. Linguistics Pronounced with the back of the tongue, as oo in cool. Used of vowels.
1. At, to, or toward the rear or back.
2. In, to, or toward a former location: went back for the class reunion.
3. In, to, or toward a former condition: When the spell broke, the prince turned back into a frog.
4. In, to, or toward a past time: This story goes back to the 1920s.
5. In reserve or concealment: We kept back some money for emergencies.
6. In check or under restraint: Barriers held the crowd back.
7. In reply or return: emailed back that he would be late.
Phrasal Verbs:
back away
To withdraw from a position; retreat.
back down
To withdraw from a position, opinion, or commitment.
back off
To retreat or draw away.
back out
1. To withdraw from something before completion.
2. To fail to keep a commitment or promise.
back up
1. To cause to accumulate or undergo accumulation: The accident backed the traffic up for blocks. Traffic backed up in the tunnel.
2. Computers To make a backup of (a program or file).
back and fill
1. Nautical To maneuver a vessel in a narrow channel by adjusting the sails so as to let the wind in and out of them in alteration.
2. To vacillate in one's actions or decisions.
back to back
Consecutively and without interruption: presented three speeches back to back.
behind (one's) back
In one's absence or without one's knowledge.
have got (someone's) back
To be prepared or ready to support or vouch for someone, as in a crisis.
have (one's) back up
To be angry or irritated.
off (someone's) back
No longer nagging or urging someone to do something.
on (someone's) back
Persistently nagging or urging someone to do something.

[Middle English bak, from Old English bæc.]

back′less adj.

back 2

A shallow vat or tub used chiefly by brewers.

[Dutch bak, from French bac, from Old French, boat, from Vulgar Latin *baccus, vessel, probably of Celtic origin.]
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.


1. (Anatomy) the posterior part of the human body, extending from the neck to the pelvis.
2. (Zoology) the corresponding or upper part of an animal
3. (Anatomy) the spinal column
4. the part or side of an object opposite the front
5. the part or side of anything less often seen or used: the back of a carpet; the back of a knife.
6. the part or side of anything that is furthest from the front or from a spectator: the back of the stage.
7. the convex part of something: the back of a hill; the back of a ship.
8. something that supports, covers, or strengthens the rear of an object
9. (Ball Games, other than specified) ball games
a. a mainly defensive player behind a forward
b. the position of such a player
10. (Printing, Lithography & Bookbinding) the part of a book to which the pages are glued or that joins the covers
11. (Mining & Quarrying) mining
a. the side of a passage or layer nearest the surface
b. the earth between that level and the next
12. (General Engineering) the upper surface of a joist, rafter, slate, tile, etc, when in position. Compare bed13
13. at one's back behind, esp in support or pursuit
14. at the back of one's mind not in one's conscious thoughts
15. behind one's back without one's knowledge; secretly or deceitfully
16. break one's back to overwork or work very hard
17. break the back of to complete the greatest or hardest part of (a task)
18. on one's back flat on one's back incapacitated, esp through illness
19. get off someone's back informal to stop criticizing or pestering someone
20. have on one's back to be burdened with
21. on someone's back informal criticizing or pestering someone
22. put one's back into to devote all one's strength to (a task)
23. put someone's back up get someone's back up to annoy someone
24. see the back of to be rid of
25. back of beyond
a. the back of beyond a very remote place
b. Austral in such a place (esp in the phrase out back of beyond)
26. turn one's back on
a. to turn away from in anger or contempt
b. to refuse to help; abandon
27. with one's back to the wall in a difficult or desperate situation
vb (mainly tr)
28. (also intr) to move or cause to move backwards
29. to provide support, money, or encouragement for (a person, enterprise, etc)
30. (Gambling, except Cards) to bet on the success of: to back a horse.
31. to provide with a back, backing, or lining
32. (Music, other) to provide with a music accompaniment: a soloist backed by an orchestra.
33. to provide a background for; be at the back of: mountains back the town.
34. (Commerce) to countersign or endorse
35. (Horse Training, Riding & Manège) archaic to mount the back of
36. (intr; foll by on or onto) to have the back facing (towards): the house backs onto a river.
37. (Physical Geography) (intr) (of the wind) to change direction in an anticlockwise direction in the northern hemisphere and a clockwise direction in the southern. See veer13a
38. (Nautical Terms) nautical to position (a sail) so that the wind presses on its opposite side
39. (Nautical Terms) nautical to manoeuvre the sails by alternately filling and emptying them of wind to navigate in a narrow place
40. to vacillate in one's opinion
adj (prenominal)
41. situated behind: a back lane.
42. of the past: back issues of a magazine.
43. (Commerce) owing from an earlier date: back rent.
44. chiefly US and Austral and NZ remote: back country.
45. (of a road) not direct
46. moving in a backward direction: back current.
47. (Phonetics & Phonology) phonetics of, relating to, or denoting a vowel articulated with the tongue retracted towards the soft palate, as for the vowels in English hard, fall, hot, full, fool
48. at, to, or towards the rear; away from something considered to be the front; backwards; behind
49. in, to, or towards the original starting point, place, or condition: to go back home; put the book back; my headache has come back.
50. in or into the past: to look back on one's childhood.
51. in reply, repayment, or retaliation: to hit someone back; pay back a debt; to answer back.
52. in check: the dam holds back the water.
53. in concealment; in reserve: to keep something back; to hold back information.
54. back and forth to and fro
55. back to front
a. in reverse
b. in disorder
[Old English bæc; related to Old Norse bak, Old Frisian bek, Old High German bah]


(Brewing) a large tub or vat, esp one used by brewers
[C17: from Dutch bak tub, cistern, from Old French bac, from Vulgar Latin bacca (unattested) vessel for liquids]
Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2014



1. the rear part of the human body, from the neck to the end of the spine.
2. the part of the body of animals corresponding to the human back.
3. the rear portion of any part of the body: the back of the head.
4. the part opposite to or farthest from the front; rear: the back of a hall.
5. the part that forms the rear of any object or structure.
6. the part covering the back: the back of a jacket.
7. the spine or backbone: The fall broke his back.
8. any rear part of an object serving to support, protect, etc.: the back of a chair.
9. the side of an object that is less functional, less often seen, etc.: the back of an envelope.
10. the whole body, with reference to clothing: the clothes on one's back.
11. ability for labor; effort; endurance: to put one's back to a task.
12. the edge of a book formed where its sections are bound together.
13. (in various sports, as football)
a. a player stationed to the rear of front-line play.
b. the position so occupied.
14. to support, as with authority, influence, help, or money: to back a candidate.
15. to bet on: to back a horse in the race.
16. to cause to move backward (often fol. by up): to back a car into a garage.
17. to furnish with a back: to back a book.
18. to lie at the back of; form a back or background for.
19. to provide with an accompaniment: a singer backed by piano and bass.
20. to get upon the back of; mount.
21. to write or print on the back of; endorse; countersign.
22. to go or move backward (often fol. by up).
23. (of wind) to change direction counterclockwise (opposed to veer).
24. back away, to retreat; withdraw.
25. back down, to abandon an argument or position.
26. back off,
a. to move back from something; retreat.
b. to back down.
27. back out, to fail to keep an engagement or promise; withdraw.
28. back up,
a. to move or cause to move backward.
b. to reinforce.
c. to support or confirm.
d. to bring (a stream of traffic) to a standstill.
e. to accumulate or become clogged due to a stoppage.
f. to copy (a computer file or program) as a precaution against failure.
29. situated at or in the rear: the back door.
30. far away or removed from the front or main area, position, or rank; remote: back streets.
31. of or belonging to the past: back issues of a magazine.
32. in arrears; overdue: back pay.
33. coming or going back; moving backward: back current.
34. (of a speech sound) articulated with the tongue in the back part of the mouth, as either of the sounds of go.
1. back and fill,
a. to trim the sails of a boat so that the wind strikes them first on the forward and then on the after side.
b. to change one's opinion or position; vacillate.
2. be (flat) on one's back, to be ill, helpless, or overcome by circumstances.
3. behind one's back, without one's knowledge, esp. treacherously or secretly.
4. break the back of, to conquer the most difficult or resistant part of: to break the back of urban crime.
5. get one's back up, to become annoyed; take offense.
6. have one's back to the wall, to be in a difficult or hopeless situation.
7. (in) back of, at the rear of; behind.
8. on someone's back, Informal. nagging or criticizing someone.
[before 1000; Middle English bak, Old English bæc back of the body, c. Old Frisian bek, Old Saxon, Old Norse bak; perhaps < Indo-European *bhogo- bending; compare bacon]
back′less, adj.
syn: back, hind, posterior, rear refer to something situated behind something else. back means the opposite of front: a back window. hind, and the more formal word posterior, refer to the rearmost of two or more, often similar objects: hind wings; posterior lobe. rear is used of buildings, conveyances, etc., and in military language it is the opposite of fore: the rear end of a truck; rear echelon.
usage: Although some object to their use, the phrases in back of and the shorter - and much older - back of with the meaning “behind” are fully established as standard in American English: They played(in)back of the house. Both phrases occur in all types of speech and writing, though behind may be easily substituted if desired.



1. at, to, or toward the rear; backward: to step back.
2. in or toward the past: to look back on one's youth.
3. at or toward the original starting point, place, or condition: to go back to one's home town; to put a coat back on.
4. in direct payment or return: to pay back a loan; to answer back.
5. in a state of restraint or retention: to hold back tears; to hold back salary.
6. in a reclining position: to lean back; to lie back.
7. go back on,
a. to fail to keep; renege on: to go back on a promise.
b. to be faithless to; betray.
back and forth,
a. backward and forward; to and fro.
b. from side to side.
c. from one to the other.
[1480–90; aph. form of aback]
Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary, © 2010 K Dictionaries Ltd. Copyright 2005, 1997, 1991 by Random House, Inc. All rights reserved.


1. used with an intransitive verb

You use back with an intransitive verb to say that someone returns to a place where they were before.

In six weeks we've got to go back to West Africa.
I went back to the kitchen.
I'll come back after dinner.
2. 'be back'

In conversation, instead of saying that someone will 'come back', you often say that they will be back.

I imagine he'll be back for lunch.
Pete will be back from holiday next week.

Be Careful!
You never use 'back' with the verb return. You do not say, for example, 'He returned back to his office'. You say 'He returned to his office'.

I returned from the Middle East in 1956.
3. used with a transitive verb

You use back with a transitive verb to say that someone or something is taken or sent to a place where they were before. Back usually goes after the direct object.

We brought Dolly back.
He took the tray back.

When the direct object is a pronoun, back always goes after it.

I brought him back to my room.
She put it back on the shelf.

However, when the direct object is a long noun group, or a noun group followed by a relative clause, you put back in front of the noun group.

He recently sent back his rented television set.
He put back the silk sock which had fallen out of the drawer.
He went to the market and brought back fresh food which he cooked at home.
4. returning to a former state

Back can also be used to say that someone or something returns to a state they were in before.

He went back to sleep.
...a £30 million plant which will turn all the waste back into sulphuric acid.
5. used as a noun

Back is also a noun. Your back is the part of your body from your neck to your waist that is on the opposite side to your chest and stomach.

We lay on our backs under the ash tree.
She tapped him on the back.

The back of an object is the side or part that is towards the rear or farthest from the front.

Many relatives sat at the back of the room, some visibly upset.
Keep some long-life milk at the back of your refrigerator.

The back of a door is the side which faces into a room or cupboard.

Pin your food list on the back of the larder door.

The back of a piece of paper is the side which has no writing on, or the side which you look at second.

Sign on the back of the prescription form.

Note that in British English you do not talk about the 'back side' of a door or piece of paper. However, in American English, this construction is common.

Be sure to read the back side of this sheet.
Collins COBUILD English Usage © HarperCollins Publishers 1992, 2004, 2011, 2012


Past participle: backed
Gerund: backing

I back
you back
he/she/it backs
we back
you back
they back
I backed
you backed
he/she/it backed
we backed
you backed
they backed
Present Continuous
I am backing
you are backing
he/she/it is backing
we are backing
you are backing
they are backing
Present Perfect
I have backed
you have backed
he/she/it has backed
we have backed
you have backed
they have backed
Past Continuous
I was backing
you were backing
he/she/it was backing
we were backing
you were backing
they were backing
Past Perfect
I had backed
you had backed
he/she/it had backed
we had backed
you had backed
they had backed
I will back
you will back
he/she/it will back
we will back
you will back
they will back
Future Perfect
I will have backed
you will have backed
he/she/it will have backed
we will have backed
you will have backed
they will have backed
Future Continuous
I will be backing
you will be backing
he/she/it will be backing
we will be backing
you will be backing
they will be backing
Present Perfect Continuous
I have been backing
you have been backing
he/she/it has been backing
we have been backing
you have been backing
they have been backing
Future Perfect Continuous
I will have been backing
you will have been backing
he/she/it will have been backing
we will have been backing
you will have been backing
they will have been backing
Past Perfect Continuous
I had been backing
you had been backing
he/she/it had been backing
we had been backing
you had been backing
they had been backing
I would back
you would back
he/she/it would back
we would back
you would back
they would back
Past Conditional
I would have backed
you would have backed
he/she/it would have backed
we would have backed
you would have backed
they would have backed
Collins English Verb Tables © HarperCollins Publishers 2011
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Noun1.back - the posterior part of a human (or animal) body from the neck to the end of the spineback - the posterior part of a human (or animal) body from the neck to the end of the spine; "his back was nicely tanned"
saddle - posterior part of the back of a domestic fowl
body part - any part of an organism such as an organ or extremity
torso, trunk, body - the body excluding the head and neck and limbs; "they moved their arms and legs and bodies"
small - the slender part of the back
lat, latissimus dorsi - a broad flat muscle on either side of the back
dorsal vertebra, thoracic vertebra - one of 12 vertebrae in the human vertebral column; thoracic vertebrae extend from the seventh cervical vertebra down to the first lumbar vertebra
lumbar vertebra - one of 5 vertebrae in the human vertebral column; lumbar vertebrae extend from the twelfth thoracic vertebra down to the sacral vertebrae
2.back - the side that goes last or is not normally seen; "he wrote the date on the back of the photograph"
side - an extended outer surface of an object; "he turned the box over to examine the bottom side"; "they painted all four sides of the house"
after part, stern, tail, quarter - the rear part of a ship
empennage, tail assembly, tail - the rear part of an aircraft
3.back - the part of something that is furthest from the normal viewerback - the part of something that is furthest from the normal viewer; "he stood at the back of the stage"; "it was hidden in the rear of the store"
position, place - the particular portion of space occupied by something; "he put the lamp back in its place"
front - the part of something that is nearest to the normal viewer; "he walked to the front of the stage"
4.back - (football) a person who plays in the backfieldback - (football) a person who plays in the backfield
football, football game - any of various games played with a ball (round or oval) in which two teams try to kick or carry or propel the ball into each other's goal
flanker, flanker back - a back stationed wide of the scrimmage line; used as a pass receiver
football player, footballer - an athlete who plays American football
field general, quarterback, signal caller - (football) the person who plays quarterback
running back - (football) a back on the offensive team (a fullback or halfback) who tries to advance the ball by carrying it on plays from the line of scrimmage
tailback - (American football) the person who plays tailback
wingback - (football) the person who plays wingback
5.back - the series of vertebrae forming the axis of the skeleton and protecting the spinal cordback - the series of vertebrae forming the axis of the skeleton and protecting the spinal cord; "the fall broke his back"
notochord - a flexible rodlike structure that forms the supporting axis of the body in the lowest chordates and lowest vertebrates and in embryos of higher vertebrates
chine - backbone of an animal
canalis vertebralis, spinal canal, vertebral canal - the canal in successive vertebrae through which the spinal cord passes
coccyx, tail bone - the end of the vertebral column in humans and tailless apes
vertebra - one of the bony segments of the spinal column
intervertebral disc, intervertebral disk - a fibrocartilaginous disc serving as a cushion between all of the vertebrae of the spinal column (except between the first two)
skeletal structure - any structure created by the skeleton of an organism
axial skeleton - the part of the skeleton that includes the skull and spinal column and sternum and ribs
6.back - the protective covering on the front, back, and spine of a bookback - the protective covering on the front, back, and spine of a book; "the book had a leather binding"
book, volume - physical objects consisting of a number of pages bound together; "he used a large book as a doorstop"
half binding - book binding in which the spine and part of the sides are bound in one material and the rest in another
protective cover, protective covering, protection - a covering that is intend to protect from damage or injury; "they had no protection from the fallout"; "wax provided protection for the floors"
three-quarter binding - the spine and much of the sides are a different material from the rest of the cover
7.back - the part of a garment that covers the back of your bodyback - the part of a garment that covers the back of your body; "they pinned a `kick me' sign on his back"
cloth covering - a covering made of cloth
8.back - a support that you can lean against while sittingback - a support that you can lean against while sitting; "the back of the dental chair was adjustable"
cantle - the back of a saddle seat
car seat - a seat in a car
chair - a seat for one person, with a support for the back; "he put his coat over the back of the chair and sat down"
ladder-back - the backrest of a chair that consists of two uprights with connecting slats
support - any device that bears the weight of another thing; "there was no place to attach supports for a shelf"
9.back - (American football) the position of a player on a football team who is stationed behind the line of scrimmageback - (American football) the position of a player on a football team who is stationed behind the line of scrimmage
American football, American football game - a game played by two teams of 11 players on a rectangular field 100 yards long; teams try to get possession of the ball and advance it across the opponents goal line in a series of (running or passing) plays
position - (in team sports) the role assigned to an individual player; "what position does he play?"
line backer, linebacker - (American football) the position of a defensive football player who plays close behind the line of scrimmage
field general, quarterback, signal caller - (American football) the position of the football player in the backfield who directs the offensive play of his team; "quarterback is the most important position on the team"
fullback - (American football) the position of a back on a football team
halfback - (American football) the position of a back on a football team
tailback - (American football) the position of the offensive back on a football team who lines up farthest from the line of scrimmage
wingback - (American football) the position of the offensive back who lines up behind or outside the end
backfield - the offensive football players who line up behind the linemen
secondary - the defensive football players who line up behind the linemen
Verb1.back - be behindback - be behind; approve of; "He plumped for the Labor Party"; "I backed Kennedy in 1960"
approve, O.K., okay, sanction - give sanction to; "I approve of his educational policies"
warrant, guarantee - stand behind and guarantee the quality, accuracy, or condition of; "The dealer warrants all the cars he sells"; "I warrant this information"
champion, defend - protect or fight for as a champion
second, endorse, indorse, back - give support or one's approval to; "I'll second that motion"; "I can't back this plan"; "endorse a new project"
2.back - travel backwardback - travel backward; "back into the driveway"; "The car backed up and hit the tree"
go, locomote, move, travel - change location; move, travel, or proceed, also metaphorically; "How fast does your new car go?"; "We travelled from Rome to Naples by bus"; "The policemen went from door to door looking for the suspect"; "The soldiers moved towards the city in an attempt to take it before night fell"; "news travelled fast"
back out - move out of a space backwards; "He backed out of the driveway"
back - cause to travel backward; "back the car into the parking spot"
back out - move out of a space backwards; "He backed out of the driveway"
back down, back off, back up - move backwards from a certain position; "The bully had to back down"
3.back - give support or one's approval toback - give support or one's approval to; "I'll second that motion"; "I can't back this plan"; "endorse a new project"
back, endorse, indorse, plump for, plunk for, support - be behind; approve of; "He plumped for the Labor Party"; "I backed Kennedy in 1960"
back up, support - give moral or psychological support, aid, or courage to; "She supported him during the illness"; "Her children always backed her up"
4.back - cause to travel backwardback - cause to travel backward; "back the car into the parking spot"
back - travel backward; "back into the driveway"; "The car backed up and hit the tree"
bring forward, advance - cause to move forward; "Can you move the car seat forward?"
5.back - support financial backing forback - support financial backing for; "back this enterprise"
finance - obtain or provide money for; "Can we finance the addition to our home?"
6.back - be in back ofback - be in back of; "My garage backs their yard"
lie - be located or situated somewhere; occupy a certain position
front, face, look - be oriented in a certain direction, often with respect to another reference point; be opposite to; "The house looks north"; "My backyard look onto the pond"; "The building faces the park"
7.back - place a bet onback - place a bet on; "Which horse are you backing?"; "I'm betting on the new horse"
ante - place one's stake
parlay, double up - stake winnings from one bet on a subsequent wager
wager, bet, play - stake on the outcome of an issue; "I bet $100 on that new horse"; "She played all her money on the dark horse"
8.back - shift to a counterclockwise directionback - shift to a counterclockwise direction; "the wind backed"
change over, shift, switch - make a shift in or exchange of; "First Joe led; then we switched"
veer - shift to a clockwise direction; "the wind veered"
9.back - establish as valid or genuineback - establish as valid or genuine; "Can you back up your claims?"
affirm, confirm, corroborate, substantiate, support, sustain - establish or strengthen as with new evidence or facts; "his story confirmed my doubts"; "The evidence supports the defendant"
10.back - strengthen by providing with a back or backing
strengthen - gain strength; "His body strengthened"
Adj.1.back - related to or located at the backback - related to or located at the back; "the back yard"; "the back entrance"
posterior - located at or near or behind a part or near the end of a structure
aft - (nautical, aeronautical) situated at or toward the stern or tail
front - relating to or located in the front; "the front lines"; "the front porch"
2.back - located at or near the back of an animalback - located at or near the back of an animal; "back (or hind) legs"; "the hinder part of a carcass"
posterior - located at or near or behind a part or near the end of a structure
3.back - of an earlier dateback - of an earlier date; "back issues of the magazine"
noncurrent - not current or belonging to the present time
Adv.1.back - in or to or toward a former location; "she went back to her parents' house"
2.back - at or to or toward the back or rearback - at or to or toward the back or rear; "he moved back"; "tripped when he stepped backward"; "she looked rearward out the window of the car"
3.back - in or to or toward an original condition; "he went back to sleep"
4.back - in or to or toward a past timeback - in or to or toward a past time; "set the clocks back an hour"; "never look back"; "lovers of the past looking fondly backward"
ahead, forward - toward the future; forward in time; "I like to look ahead in imagination to what the future may bring"; "I look forward to seeing you"
5.back - in replyback - in reply; "he wrote back three days later"
6.back - in repayment or retaliation; "we paid back everything we had borrowed"; "he hit me and I hit him back"; "I was kept in after school for talking back to the teacher"
Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2012 Princeton University, Farlex Inc.


1. backwards, in reverse, towards the rear, towards the back, rearwards She stepped back from the door expectantly.
2. again, as before Denise hopes to be back at work by the time her daughter is one.
3. at a distance, far, away, apart, out of the way Keep back from the edge of the platform.
4. ago, before, earlier, in the past, previously He was wounded in that terrorist attack a few years back.
1. spine, backbone, vertebrae, spinal column, vertebral column Three of the victims were shot in the back.
2. rear, other side, back end, rear side a room at the back of the shop
rear head, face, front, fore
3. end, tail end the customers at the back of the queue
4. reverse, rear, other side, wrong side, underside, flip side, verso Send your answers on the back of a postcard.
1. rear a path leading to the back garden
rear front, advance, fore
2. rearmost, hind, hindmost She could remember sitting in the back seat of their car.
3. previous, earlier, former, past, out of date, elapsed A handful of back copies will give an indication of property prices.
previous later, future
4. tail, end, rear, posterior, dorsal They had transmitters taped to their back feathers.
2. subsidize, help, support, finance, sponsor, assist, underwrite Murjani backed him to start the new company.
3. gamble on, bet (money) on, speculate on, punt on (chiefly Brit.), put money on, take a risk on, put your shirt on, stake money on, chance money on, wager money on, pledge money on, venture money on It is upsetting to discover that you have backed a loser.
back away move back, go back, retire, withdraw, shrink, recede, pull back, back off, recoil, draw back, give ground, turn tail The girls hastily backed away.
back away from something retreat, withdraw, shrink, depart, pull back, back off, draw back He's backing away from the policies and styles of his predecessor.
back down give in, collapse, withdraw, yield, concede, submit, surrender, comply, cave in (informal), capitulate, accede, admit defeat, back-pedal It's too late now to back down.
back off from something retreat from, withdraw from, depart from, shrink from, pull back from, draw back from The union has publicly backed off from that demand.
back out withdraw, retire, give up, pull out, retreat, drop out, renege, cop out (slang), chicken out (informal), detach yourself I've already promised I'll go - I can't back out now.
back out of something
1. withdraw from, abandon, cancel, pull out of, retire from, resign from, drop out of, give up on, retreat from, go back on, renege on, flip-flop on (informal, chiefly U.S.), backtrack on, chicken out of (informal), cop out of (slang), detach yourself from, recant on, disengage yourself from They backed out of the deal.
2. withdraw from, retire from, reverse from, retreat from, pull back from, back off from, back away from, recoil from, draw back from, turn tail from The two men backed out of the shop.
back someone up support, second, aid, assist, stand by, bolster, side with, vouch for The girl denied being there, and the men backed her up.
back something up substantiate, support, prove, confirm, reinforce, validate, bear out, corroborate, attest to, authenticate Her views are backed up by a report on crime.
behind someone's back secretly, covertly, surreptitiously, furtively, conspiratorially, sneakily, deceitfully You enjoy her hospitality, and then criticize her behind her back.
Related words
adjective dorsal
Collins Thesaurus of the English Language – Complete and Unabridged 2nd Edition. 2002 © HarperCollins Publishers 1995, 2002


The part or area farthest from the front:
1. To move in a reverse direction:
Idiom: retrace one's steps.
2. To supply capital to or for:
Informal: bankroll.
Idiom: put up money for.
3. To aid the cause of by approving or favoring:
Idioms: align oneself with, go to bat for, take the part of.
4. To present evidence in support of.Also used with up:
5. To assure the certainty or validity of.Also used with up:
phrasal verb
back down or out
To abandon a former position or commitment:
Slang: cop out, fink out.
1. Located in the rear:
Nautical: after.
1. Toward the back:
2. In or toward a former location or condition:
The American Heritage® Roget's Thesaurus. Copyright © 2013, 2014 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
ظَهْرظَهْر، الجِهَة الخَلفِيَّهظَهْرالحَيَوانيُؤَيِّد، يَدْعَميُراهِن عَلى
rygtilbagebag-bagerste delbagside
gledati naleđanatragpozadinastražnji
afturaftur-, bak-aftur, frábak, hryggurbakka
alinantisapkalbėjimasapkalbėtiarti atramosatgal
aizmugureaizmuguresaizsargsatbalstītatgāzties pret
în spateleînapoispate
hrbetnazajpodpretiumakniti sezadnji
backaryggtillbakabacka uppbak-
กลับไปสภาพเดิมซึ่งผ่านมาแล้ว ซึ่งอยู่ด้านหลังด้านหลังถอยหลัง สนับสนุนหลัง ส่วนหลัง
lưngở phía sauphía sauquay lưng ravề phía sau


When back is an element in a phrasal verb, eg come back, go back, put back, look up the verb.
1. (= part of body)
1.1. [of person] → espalda f; [of animal] → lomo m
I've got a bad backtengo la espalda mal, tengo un problema de espalda
to shoot sb in the backdisparar a algn por la espalda
he was lying on his backestaba tumbado boca arriba
to carry sth/sb on one's backllevar algo/a algn a la espalda
to have one's back to sth/sbestar de espaldas a algo/algn
with his back to the lightde espaldas a la luz
sitting back to backsentados espalda con espalda
1.2. behind sb's backa espaldas de algn
they laughed at her behind her backse rieron de ella a sus espaldas
she has been seeing David behind my backha estado viendo a David a mis espaldas
to break the back of sth (= do the difficult part) → hacer la peor parte de algo; (= do the main part) → hacer lo más gordo de algo, hacer la mayor parte de algo
to get off sb's backdejar a algn en paz
to get sb's back upponer negro a algn, mosquear a algn
to live off the back of sbvivir a costa de algn
to be on sb's backestar encima de algn
my boss is always on my backmi jefe siempre está encima mío
on the back of stha consecuencia de algo
shares rose on the back of two major new dealslas acciones subieron a consecuencia de dos nuevos e importantes tratos
to put one's back into sthponer mucho esfuerzo or empeño en algo
to put one's back into doing sthesforzarse a tope por hacer algo, emplearse a fondo en hacer algo
to put sb's back upponer negro a algn, mosquear a algn
to see the back of sb I was glad to see the back of himme alegró deshacerme de él
the moment or as soon as your back is turned ...en cuanto te descuidas ...
to have one's back to the wallestar entre la espada y la pared
see also flat A1
see also stab A1
2. (= reverse side) [of cheque, envelope] → dorso m, revés m; [of hand] → dorso m; [of head] → parte f de atrás, parte f posterior (more frm); [of dress] → espalda f; [of medal] → reverso m
write your name on the backescriba su nombre en el reverso
the back of the neckla nuca
to know sth like the back of one's hand I know Naples like the back of my handconozco Nápoles como la palma de la mano
3. (= rear) [of room, hall] → fondo m; [of chair] → respaldo m; [of car] → parte f trasera, parte f de atrás; [of book] (= back cover) → tapa f posterior; (= spine) → lomo m
there was damage to the back of the carla parte trasera or de atrás del coche resultó dañada
at the back (of) [+ building] → en la parte de atrás (de); [+ cupboard, hall, stage] → en el fondo (de)
there's a car park at the backhay un aparcamiento en la parte de atrás
be quiet at the back!¡los de atrás guarden silencio!
they sat at the back of the busse sentaron en la parte de atrás del autobús, se sentaron al fondo del autobús
he's at the back of all this troubleél está detrás de todo este lío
ambition is at the back of itla ambición es lo que ha causado todo esto
this idea had been at the back of his mind for several daysesta idea le había estado varios días rondándole la cabeza
the ship broke its backel barco se partió por la mitad
back to frontal revés
you've got your sweater on back to frontte has puesto el jersey al revés
in back of the house (US) → detrás de la casa
in the back of the caren la parte trasera del coche
I'll sit in the backyo me sentaré detrás
the toilet's out the backel baño está fuera en la parte de atrás
they keep the car round the backdejan el coche detrás de la casa
see also beyond B
see also mind A1
4. (Sport) (= defender) → defensa mf
the team is weak at the backla defensa del equipo es débil
left backdefensa mf izquierdo/a
right backdefensa mf derecho/a
1. (in space) → atrás
stand back!¡atrás!
keep (well) back! (= out of danger) → ¡quédate ahí atrás!
keep back! (= don't come near me) → ¡no te acerques!
meanwhile, back in London/back at the airportmientras, en Londres/en el aeropuerto
he little suspected how worried they were back at homequé poco sospechaba lo preocupados que estaban en casa
back and forthde acá para allá
to go back and forth [person] → ir de acá para allá
there were phone calls back and forthse hicieron un montón de llamadas el uno al otro
back from the roadapartado de la carretera
2. (in time) some months backhace unos meses
back in the 12th centuryallá en el siglo XII
it all started back in 1980todo empezó ya en 1980todo empezó allá en 1980 (liter)
I saw her back in Augustla vi el agosto pasado
3. (= returned)
to be backvolver
when/what time will you be back?¿cuándo/a qué hora vuelves?, ¿cuándo/a qué hora estarás de vuelta?
he's not back yetaún no ha vuelto, aún no está de vuelta
the electricity is backha vuelto la electricidad
black is back (in fashion)vuelve (a estar de moda) el negro, se vuelve a llevar el negro
he went to Paris and backfue a París y volvió
30 kilometres there and back30 kilómetros ida y vuelta
you can go there and back in a daypuedes ir y volver en un día
she's now back at workya ha vuelto al trabajo
the kids will be back at school tomorrowlos niños vuelven al colegio mañana
I'll be back by 6estaré de vuelta para las 6
I'd like it backquiero que me lo devuelvan
full satisfaction or your money backsi no está totalmente satisfecho, le devolvemos el dinero
everything is back to normaltodo ha vuelto a la normalidad
I want it backquiero que me lo devuelvan
see also hit back
1. (= reverse) [+ vehicle] → dar marcha atrás a
she backed the car into the garageentró el coche en el garaje dando marcha atrás
he backed the car into a walldio marcha atrás y chocó con un muro
2. (= support)
2.1. (also back up) [+ plan, person] → apoyar
they found a witness to back his claimencontraron un testigo que apoyó lo que decía
2.2. (= finance) [+ person, enterprise] → financiar
2.3. (Mus) [+ singer] → acompañar
3. (= bet on) [+ horse] → apostar por
I'm backing Manchester to winyo apuesto por que va a ganar el Manchester
to back the wrong horse (lit) → apostar por el caballo perdedor
Russia backed the wrong horse in him (fig) → Rusia se ha equivocado al apoyar a él
to back a winner (lit) → apostar por el ganador
he is confident that he's backing a winner (fig) (person) → está seguro de que está dando su apoyo a un ganador; (idea, project) → está seguro de que va a funcionar bien
4. (= attach backing to) [+ rug, quilt] → forrar
1. [person]
1.1. (in car) → dar marcha atrás
she backed into medio marcha atrás y chocó conmigo
1.2. (= step backwards) → echarse hacia atrás, retroceder
he backed into a tablese echó hacia atrás y se dio con una mesa, retrocedió y se dio con una mesa
2. (= change direction) [wind] → cambiar de dirección (en sentido contrario a las agujas del reloj)
1. (= rear) [leg, pocket, wheel] → de atrás, trasero
the back rowla última fila
2. (= previous, overdue) [rent, tax, issue] → atrasado
F. COMPOUNDS back alley Ncallejuela f (que recorre la parte de atrás de una hilera de casas)
back boiler Ncaldera f pequeña (detrás de una chimenea)
back burner Nquemador m de detrás
to put sth on the back burnerposponer algo, dejar algo para más tarde
back catalogue N (Mus) → catálogo m de grabaciones discográficas
back copy N (Press) → número m atrasado
the back country N (US) → zona f rural (con muy baja densidad de población)
see also back-country back cover Ncontraportada f
back door Npuerta f trasera
to do sth by or through the back doorhacer algo de forma encubierta
back formation N (Ling) → derivación f regresiva
back garden N (Brit) → jardín m trasero
back lot N (Cine) → exteriores mpl (del estudio); [of house, hotel, company premises] → solar m trasero
back marker N (Brit) (Sport) → competidor(a) m/f rezagado/a
back matter N [of book] → apéndices mpl
back number N [of magazine, newspaper] → número m atrasado
back page Ncontraportada f
back pain Ndolor m de espalda, dolor m lumbar
back passage N (Brit) (euph) → recto m
back pay Natrasos mpl
back rest Nrespaldo m
back road Ncarretera f comarcal, carretera f secundaria
back room Ncuarto m interior (fig) lugar donde se hacen investigaciones secretas
back seat Nasiento m trasero, asiento m de atrás
to take a back seatmantenerse en un segundo plano
back somersault Nsalto m mortal hacia atrás
back stop N (Sport) red que se coloca alrededor de una cancha para impedir que se escapen las pelotas
back talk N (US) = backchat back tooth Nmuela f
back view N the back view of the hotel is very impressiveel hotel visto desde atrás es impresionante, la parte de atrás del hotel es impresionante
back vowel N (Ling) → vocal f posterior
back away VI + ADV
1. (lit) → retroceder (from ante)
2. (fig) (from promise, pledge, statement) → echarse atrás, dar marcha atrás (from en) the government have been backing away from making such a commitmentel gobierno ha estado tratando de evitar comprometerse a tal cosa
back down VI + ADVecharse atrás, dar marcha atrás
to back down on sthecharse atrás en algo, dar marcha atrás en algo
back off VI + ADV (= stop exerting pressure) → echarse atrás, dar marcha atrás (from en) (= withdraw) → retirarse
back off!¡déjame en paz!, ¡déjame estar!
she asked him to back off and give her some spacele pidió que no le estuviera encima y la dejara respirar
the government has backed off from its decisionel gobierno se ha echado atrás or el gobierno ha dado marcha atrás en su decisión
back on to VI + PREP the house backs on to the golf coursepor atrás la casa da al campo de golf
back out
1. (lit) [vehicle, driver] → salir marcha atrás (of de) [person] → salir hacia atrás (of de)
2. (fig) [person] (of team) → retirarse (of de) (of deal, duty) → echarse atrás (of en) they are threatening to back out of the dealamenazan con echarse atrás en el trato
B. VT + ADV [+ vehicle] → sacar marcha atrás
back up
1. (= support) [+ person] → apoyar, respaldar
2. (= confirm) [+ claim, theory] → respaldar
3. (= reverse) [+ car] → dar marcha atrás a, hacer retroceder
4. (Comput) [+ file] → hacer una copia de seguridad or de reserva de
5. (= delay) the traffic was backed up for two mileshabía una caravana (de tráfico) de dos millas, había retenciones (de tráfico) de dos millas
1. (in car) (= reverse) → dar marcha atrás
2. (= queue) traffic is backing up for miles behind the accidenthay una caravana (de tráfico) de varias millas desde el lugar del accidente, hay retenciones (de tráfico) de varias millas desde el lugar del accidente
Collins Spanish Dictionary - Complete and Unabridged 8th Edition 2005 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1971, 1988 © HarperCollins Publishers 1992, 1993, 1996, 1997, 2000, 2003, 2005


[person, animal] → dos m
to do sth behind sb's back → faire qch derrière le dos de qn
to turn one's back on sb/sth (= abandon) → tourner le dos à qn/qch
to have one's back to the wall, to have one's back against the wall (fig)être au pied du mur, être le dos au mur
to break the back of a job (British)faire le gros d'un travail
to get sb's back up (= annoy) → hérisser qn
to get off sb's back → ficher la paix à qn
to be glad to see the back of sb (British)être content(e) de voir partir qn
[hand] → dos m, revers m
the back of the neck → la nuque
the back of the leg → le mollet
[top, dress, skirt] → dos m; [trousers] → fond m back to front
[page, cheque] → verso m
on the back → au verso
[door] → dos m
[house] → derrière m; [room, theatre, hall] → fond m
at the back [room, theatre, hall] → au fond
[car, train] → arrière m
in the back → à l'arrière
[book] (= end) → fin f (= back cover) → dos m
[chair] → dossier m
The chair has no back → La chaise n'a pas de dossier.
to put one's coat on the back of a chair → mettre son manteau sur le dossier d'une chaise, mettre son manteau sur le dos d'une chaise
(SPORT) (= defender) → arrière m
(= support financially, fund) → soutenir financièrement
(= give one's backing to) [+ candidate] → soutenir; [+ plan] → soutenir
(= bet on) [+ horse] → parier sur, miser sur
to back the winner (lit)miser sur le gagnant
to back the winner (fig)miser sur le gagnant
(also back up) [+ car] → reculer
to back one's car into a parking space → garer sa voiture en marche arrière
vi (also back up) (= move backwards) [person] → reculer; [car, vehicle] → faire marche arrière
(not front) [legs, feet] → de derrière; [window, wall, row, entrance] → de derrière
back wheels [car] → roues fpl arrière
the back wheel of my bike → la roue arrière de mon vélo
back garden → jardin sur l'arrière
(in arrears) back payment → arriéré m de paiements
back rent → arriéré m de loyer
(= backwards)
Can you move back a little bit? → Pouvez-vous reculer un peu?
to tiptoe back → reculer sur la pointe des pieds
to creep back → reculer en rampant
see also fall back, hang back, step back, turn back
(= returned) to be back
He's back → Il est rentré., Il est de retour.
He's not back yet → Il n'est pas encore rentré.
When will you be back? → Quand seras-tu de retour?
She will be back at work next week
BUT Elle retournera travailler la semaine prochaine.
to run back → revenir en courant
He ran back → Il est revenu en courant.
to walk back
We went there by bus and walked back → Nous y sommes allés en bus et nous sommes rentrés à pied.
(restitution) to throw the ball back → renvoyer la balle
can I have it back? → je peux le ravoir?, tu peux me le rendre?
she passed the plate back to Carol → elle a redonné l'assiette à Carol
see also give back
(= ago) back in 1980 → en 1980
The story starts back in 1950
BUT L'histoire remonte à 1950.
a few years back → il y a quelques années
back in the day → dans le temps
back down
vi (= give way) → revenir sur sa position
to back down on sth [+ plan, issue,demand] → se rétracter sur qch
The president tried to back down on what he had said → Le président a essayé de se rétracter sur ce qu'il avait dit.
back on to
back onto vt fus
The house backs on to the golf course → Le derrière de la maison donne sur le terrain de golf.
back out
[driver, car] (of driveway, parking space)sortir en marche arrière
(of promise, commitment, deal)se désister
They promised to help us, and then backed out → Ils avaient promis de nous aider et ils se sont désistés.
to back out of sth [+ promise, commitment, deal] → se retirer de qch
back up
vt sep
(COMPUTING) [+ file, disk] → faire une copie de sauvegarde de
(= support) [+ person] → soutenir; [+ views, statement, theory, sb's words] → confirmer
If I say I was at your house, will you back me up? → Si je dis que j'étais chez toi, tu peux le confirmer?
[+ car] → reculer
Collins English/French Electronic Resource. © HarperCollins Publishers 2005


(of person, animal, book)Rücken m; (of chair)(Rücken)lehne f; with one’s back to the engine (Brit) → mit dem Rücken zur Fahrtrichtung, rückwärts; to be on one’s back (= be ill)auf der Nase liegen (inf), → krank sein; to wear one’s hair down one’s backüberschulterlange Haare haben; to break one’s back (lit)sich (dat)das Rückgrat brechen; (fig)sich abrackern, sich abmühen; we’ve broken the back of the job (Brit) → wir sind mit der Arbeit über den Berg (inf); behind somebody’s back (fig)hinter jds Rücken (dat); to put one’s back into something (fig)sich bei etw anstrengen, bei etw Einsatz zeigen; to put or get somebody’s back upjdn gegen sich aufbringen; to turn one’s back on somebody (lit)jdm den Rücken zuwenden; (fig)sich von jdm abwenden; when I needed him he turned his back on meals ich ihn brauchte, ließ er mich im Stich; get these people off my back (inf)schaff mir diese Leute vom Hals! (inf); get off my back! (inf)lass mich endlich in Ruhe!; he’s got the boss on his back all the timeer hat dauernd seinen Chef auf dem Hals; the rich have always lived off the backs of the poordie Reichen haben immer auf Kosten der Armen gelebt; to have one’s back to the wall (fig)in die Enge getrieben sein/werden; I was pleased to see the back of them (inf)ich war froh, sie endlich los zu sein (inf)
(as opposed to front) → Rück- or Hinterseite f; (of hand, dress)Rücken m; (of house, page, coin, cheque)Rückseite f; (of material)linke Seite; I know London like the back of my handich kenne London wie meine Westentasche; the index is at the back of the bookdas Verzeichnis ist hinten im Buch; he drove into the back of meer ist mir hinten reingefahren (inf); on the back of his handauf dem Handrücken; the back of one’s headder Hinterkopf; at/on the back of the bushinten im/am Bus; in the back (of a car)hinten (im Auto); one thing was at the back of my mindich hatte dabei eine Überlegung im Hinterkopf; there’s one other worry at the back of my mindda ist noch etwas, das mich beschäftigt; right at the back of the cupboardganz hinten im Schrank; at the back of the stageim Hintergrund der Bühne; at the back of the garage (inside) → hinten in der Garage; (outside) → hinter der Garage; at the back of beyondam Ende der Welt, jwd (hum); in back (US) → hinten
(Ftbl) → Verteidiger(in) m(f); (Rugby) → Hinterspieler(in) m(f)
adjHinter-; rentausstehend, rückständig; back wheelHinterrad nt
(= to the rear) (stand) back!zurück(treten)!, (treten Sie) zurück!; back and forthhin und her
(= in return)zurück; to pay something backetw zurückzahlen
(= returning)zurück; to come/go backzurückkommen/-gehen; to fly to London and backnach London und zurück fliegen; there and backhin und zurück
(= again)wieder; he went back several timeser fuhr noch öfters wieder hin; I’ll never go backda gehe ich nie wieder hin; she is back at worksie arbeitet wieder; back in Londonzurück in London
(= ago: in time phrases) a week backvor einer Woche; as far back as the 18th century (= dating back)bis ins 18. Jahrhundert zurück; (point in time) → schon im 18. Jahrhundert; back in March, 1987im März 1987; far back in the pastvor langer, langer Zeit, vor Urzeiten
prep (US) back ofhinter
(= support)unterstützen; I will back you whatever you doegal was du tust, ich stehe hinter dir; if the bank won’t back uswenn die Bank nicht mitmacht; to back a bill (Fin) → einen Wechsel indossieren
(Betting) → setzen or wetten auf (+acc); the horse was heavily backedauf das Pferd wurden viele Wetten abgeschlossen
(= cause to move) carzurückfahren or -setzen; cartzurückfahren; horserückwärts gehen lassen; he backed his car into the tree/garageer fuhr rückwärts gegen den Baum/in die Garage; to back water (Naut) → rückwärts rudern
(Mus) singerbegleiten
(= put sth behind) picturemit einem Rücken versehen, unterlegen; (= stick on)aufziehen
(= move backwards: car, train) → zurücksetzen or -fahren; the car backed into the garagedas Auto fuhr rückwärts in die Garage; she backed into mesie fuhr rückwärts in mein Auto
(Naut, wind) → drehen


back alley
nGasse f
back bench
n (esp Brit) → Abgeordnetensitz m; the backesdas Plenum
n (esp Brit) → Abgeordnete(r) mf (auf den hinteren Reihen im britischen Parlament)


back bend
n (Sport) → Brücke f
nLästern nt
n (Basketball) → Korbbrett nt
back boiler
nWarmwasserboiler m (hinter der Heizung angebracht)
n (lit, fig)Rückgrat nt
back burner
n (lit)hintere Kochplatte; to put something on the back (fig inf)etw zurückstellen; this project’s been on the back for yearsan diesem Projekt wird seit Jahren nur so nebenbei gearbeitet
back catalogue
n (Mus) → ältere Aufnahmen pl, → Back-Katalog m
n no pl (inf)Widerrede f; none of your back!keine Widerrede!
nProspekt m, → Hintergrund m
vt hairtoupieren
back copy
back country, backcountry (US)
n the backdas Hinterland, die tiefste Provinz
adj roadLand-; back expeditionExpedition fins Hinterland
back cover
n (of book, magazine)Rückseite f
vt(zu)rückdatieren; salary increase backd to MayGehaltserhöhung rückwirkend ab Mai
back door
n (lit)Hintertür f; (fig)Hintertürchen nt; by the back (fig)durch die Hintertür; if you use the back-door means of doing itwenn Sie das durchs Hintertürchen machen
nProspekt m, → Hintergrund m (also fig)


nalte Akte
(Aut) → Fehlzündung f
(US) → Gegenfeuer nt
(Aut) → Fehlzündungen haben
(inf, plan etc) → ins Auge gehen (inf); it backd on usder Schuss ging nach hinten los (inf)
nFlickflack m
back formation
n (Ling) → Rückbildung f
back four
n (+pl vb) (Ftbl) → Viererkette f
nBackgammon nt
back garden
nGarten m(hinterm Haus)


n (Sport) → Rückhand f no pl, → Backhand f no pl; (one stroke) → Rückhandschlag m
adjRückhand-; back strokeRückhandschlag m
advmit der Rückhand
adj complimentzweifelhaft; writingnach links geneigt; back shotRückhandschuss m
(Sport) → Rückhandschlag m
(inf: = bribe) → Schmiergeld nt; to give somebody a backjdn schmieren (inf)
nHackentrick m, → Absatztrick m
vt ballmit der Hacke or dem Absatz spielen


(Tech) (= jarring reaction)Gegenschlag m; (play)zu viel Spiel
(fig)Gegenreaktion f
adj dressrückenfrei
n (in publishing) → Backlist f
adj screen, photographhintergrundbeleuchtet
nRückstände pl; I have a back of workich bin mit der Arbeit im Rückstand; look at this back of typingsehen Sie sich diesen Berg unerledigter Schreibarbeiten an
n (Film) Hintergelände eines Filmstudios
back marker
n (Sport) → Nachzügler(in) m(f), → Schlusslicht nt; the backsdie Nachhut
adjhinterste(r, s)
back number
n (of paper)alte Ausgabe or Nummer; (fig inf) (= person)altmodischer Mensch; (= thing)veraltetes Ding; he is a back (inf)er ist altmodisch
nRucksack m
nWanderer m, → Wanderin f; (= hitch-hiker)Rucksacktourist(in) m(f)
nWandern nt; (= hitch-hiking)Trampen nt; to go backauf (Berg)tour gehen; → trampen
back passage
n (euph Anat) → Mastdarm m
back pay
nNachzahlung f
vi (lit)rückwärts treten; (fig inf)einen Rückzieher machen (inf)(on bei)
back-pedal brake
back pocket
back projection
n (Film) → Rückprojektion f
back rest
back road
back room
nHinterzimmer nt
back-room boy
n (inf)Experte mim Hintergrund
back seat
nRücksitz m; to take a back (fig)sich zurückhalten or raushalten (inf)
back-seat driver
nBeifahrer, der dem Fahrer dazwischenredet; she is a terrible backsie redet beim Fahren immer rein
back shift
nSpätschicht f
n (Brit inf) → Hintern m (inf), → Hinterteil nt (inf)
n (on rifle) → Visier nt, → Kimme f
n (inf)Schulterklopfen nt
n (Typ, Comput) → Backslash m
vi (fig)rückfällig werden; (Eccl) → abtrünnig werden
nRückfällige(r) mf, → Abtrünnige(r) mf
vti (Typing) → zurücksetzen
backspace key
nRücktaste f
n (Typing) → Rücktaste f
adv adjhinter den Kulissen; (in dressing room area) → in die/der Garderobe; back crewLeute plhinter den Kulissen; (at pop concert etc) → Backstagetruppe f
n singHintertreppe f
adj back dealHintertreppendeal m
nSteppstich m
n (Tennis) → Bande f
back straight
n (Sport) → Gegengerade f
nSeitensträßchen nt; he comes from the backs of Liverpooler kommt aus dem ärmeren Teil von Liverpool
backstreet abortion
nillegale Abtreibung; backsEngelmacherei f (inf); she had a backsie war bei einem Engelmacher (inf)
backstreet abortionist
nEngelmacher(in) m(f) (inf)
n (Sport) → Gegengerade f
n (Swimming) → Rückenschwimmen nt; can you do the back?können Sie rückenschwimmen?
n (Sport) → Durchschwung m
nWiderrede f
back to back
advRücken an Rücken; (things) → mit den Rückseiten aneinander
back to front
advverkehrt herum; readvon hinten nach vorne
back tooth
nBackenzahn m
vi (over ground) → denselben Weg zurückgehen or zurückverfolgen; (on policy etc) → einen Rückzieher machen (on sth bei etw)
(Comput) → Sicherungskopie f, → Backup nt, → Back-up nt
serviceszur Unterstützung; back troopsUnterstützungstruppen pl; back train/planeEntlastungszug m/-flugzeug nt; back planAusweichplan m; back staffReservekräfte pl; back service (for customer) → Kundendienst m
(Comput) → Sicherungs-, Backup-; back copySicherungs- or Backupkopie f
back-up light
n (US Aut) → Rückfahrscheinwerfer m
back vowel
n (Phon) → hinterer Vokal, Rachenvokal m


n (Naut) → Rückströmung f; (fig)Nachwirkung f usu pl; those caught up in the back of the scandaldiejenigen, die in den Skandal mit hineingezogen wurden
n (lit)Stauwasser nt, → totes Wasser; (fig)rückständiges Nest; this town is a cultural backkulturell (gesehen) ist diese Stadt tiefste Provinz
plunterschlossene (Wald)gebiete pl
nWaldsiedler m; (fig inf) → Hinterwäldler m
back yard
nHinterhof m; in one’s own back (fig)vor der eigenen Haustür
Collins German Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged 7th Edition 2005. © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1980 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1997, 1999, 2004, 2005, 2007


1. n
a. (of person) → schiena; (of animal) → dorso, schiena
he fell on his back → è caduto di schiena
with one's back to the light → con la luce alle spalle
seen from the back → visto/a di spalle
back to back → di spalle (uno/a contro l'altro/a), schiena contro schiena
behind sb's back → alle spalle di qn (fig) → alle spalle or dietro le spalle di qn
to break one's back → rompersi la schiena
to break the back of a job (Brit) → fare il grosso or il peggio di un lavoro
to put one's back into it (fam) → mettercela tutta
to have one's back to the wall (fig) → essere or trovarsi con le spalle al muro
to put sb's back up (fam) → far irritare qn
to get off sb's back (fam) → lasciare qn in pace
I was glad to see the back of him (fam) → ero contento che se ne fosse andato
b. (as opposed to front) → dietro; (of cheque, envelope, medal, page) → retro, rovescio; (of head) → nuca; (of hand) → dorso; (of hall, room) → fondo; (of house, car) → parte f posteriore, dietro; (of chair) → spalliera, schienale m; (of train) → coda
at the back of the class → in fondo alla classe
back to front → all'incontrario
at the back of my mind was the thought that ... → sotto sotto pensavo che...
it's always there at the back of my mind → è sempre lì, non riesco a togliermelo dalla mente
I know Naples like the back of my hand → conosco Napoli come il palmo della mia mano or come le mie tasche
at the back of beyond (fam) → in capo al mondo
he's at the back of all this → c'è lui dietro a questa storia
c. (Sport) → terzino
right/left back → terzino destro/sinistro
2. adj attr
a. (rear) → di dietro; (wheel, seat) → posteriore
back pass (Ftbl) → passaggio indietro
back garden/room → giardino/stanza sul retro (della casa)
back cover → retro della copertina
back kitchen → retrocucina m
on the back page → in ultima pagina
to take a back seat (fig) → restare in secondo piano
he's a back seat driver → sta sempre a criticare chi guida
back street → vicolo
he grew up in the back streets of Glasgow → è cresciuto nei bassifondi di Glasgow
b. (overdue, rent) → arretrato/a
back payments → arretrati mpl
3. adv
a. (again, returning) often ri- +verb to give backridare
to be back → essere tornato/a
when will you be back? → quando torni?
30 km there and back → 30 km fra andata e ritorno
put it back on the shelf → rimettilo sullo scaffale
she hit him back → gli restituì il colpo
throw the ball back → rilancia la palla
he called back → ha richiamato
can I have it back? → posso riaverlo?
he ran back → tornò indietro di corsa
b. (in distance) → indietro
stand back! → indietro!
back and forth → avanti e indietro
a house set back from the road → una casa che non si affaccia sulla strada
c. (in time) some months backmesi fa or addietro
as far back as the 13th century → già nel duecento
4. vt
a. (car) to back (into)far entrare a marcia indietro (in)
b. (support, plan, person, candidate) → appoggiare, sostenere, spalleggiare; (financially) → finanziare
c. (bet on, horse) → puntare su
5. vi (move, person) → indietreggiare; (car) → fare marcia indietro
he backed into me → ha fatto un passo indietro e mi è venuto addosso (in car) → mi è venuto addosso a marcia indietro
back away vi + adv to back away (from)indietreggiare (davanti a), tirarsi indietro (davanti a)
back down vi + adv (fig) → abbandonare, arrendersi, fare marcia indietro
back off vi + advtirarsi indietro
back on to vi + adv + prep the house backs on to the golf courseil retro della casa dà sul campo da golf
back out vi + adv (fig) → tirarsi indietro
to back out of sth (undertaking) → sottrarsi a; (deal) → ritirarsi da
back up
1. vt + adv
a. (support, person) → appoggiare, sostenere; (claim, theory) → confermare, avvalorare
b. (car) to back the car upfar marcia indietro
c. (Comput) → copiare, fare una copia di riserva di
2. vi + adv
a. (in car) → fare marcia indietro
b. (Am) (traffic) → ingorgarsi
Collins Italian Dictionary 1st Edition © HarperCollins Publishers 1995


(bӕk) noun
1. in man, the part of the body from the neck to the bottom of the spine. She lay on her back.
2. in animals, the upper part of the body. She put the saddle on the horse's back.
3. that part of anything opposite to or furthest from the front. the back of the house; She sat at the back of the hall.
4. in football, hockey etc a player who plays behind the forwards.
of or at the back. the back door.
1. to, or at, the place or person from which a person or thing came. I went back to the shop; He gave the car back to its owner.
2. away (from something); not near (something). Move back! Let the ambulance get to the injured man; Keep back from me or I'll hit you!
3. towards the back (of something). Sit back in your chair.
4. in return; in response to. When the teacher is scolding you, don't answer back.
5. to, or in, the past. Think back to your childhood.
1. to (cause to) move backwards. He backed (his car) out of the garage.
2. to help or support. Will you back me against the others?
3. to bet or gamble on. I backed your horse to win.
ˈbacker noun
a person who supports someone or something, especially with money. the backer of the new theatre.
ˈbackbite verb
to criticize a person when he is not present.
ˈbackbiting noun
Constant backbiting by her colleagues led to her resignation.
ˈbackbone noun
1. the spine. the backbone of a fish.
2. the chief support. The older employees are the backbone of the industry.
ˈbackbreaking adjective
(of a task etc) very difficult or requiring very hard work. Digging the garden is a backbreaking job.
ˌbackˈdate verb
1. to put an earlier date on (a cheque etc). He should have paid his bill last month and so he has backdated the cheque.
2. to make payable from a date in the past. Our rise in pay was backdated to April.
ˌbackˈfire verb
1. (of a motor-car etc) to make a loud bang because of unburnt gases in the exhaust system. The car backfired.
2. (of a plan etc) to have unexpected results, often opposite to the intended results. His scheme backfired (on him), and he lost money.
ˈbackground noun
1. the space behind the principal or most important figures or objects of a picture etc. He always paints ships against a background of stormy skies; trees in the background of the picture.
2. happenings that go before, and help to explain, an event etc. the background to a situation.
3. a person's origins, education etc. She was ashamed of her humble background.
ˈbackhand noun
1. in tennis etc, a stroke or shot with the back of one's hand turned towards the ball. a clever backhand; His backhand is very strong.
2. writing with the letters sloping backwards. I can always recognize her backhand.
using backhand. She played the stroke backhand; She writes backhand.
ˈbacklog noun
a pile of uncompleted work etc which has collected. a backlog of orders because of the strike.
ˌback-ˈnumber noun
an out-of-date copy or issue of a magazine etc. He collects back-numbers of comic magazines.
ˈbackpack noun
(especially American) a bag that walkers, people who go on trips, or students carry on their backs.
ˈbackpacking: go backpacking
to go on trips or go camping carrying a backpack.
ˈbackpacker noun
ˈbackside noun
the bottom or buttocks. He sits on his backside all day long and does no work.
ˈbackslash noun
the sign (\).
ˈbackstroke noun
in swimming, a stroke made when lying on one's back in the water. The child is good at backstroke.
ˈbackup noun
1. additional people who provide help when it is needed. The police officer requested some backup when the shooting began.
2. a copy of a computer file that can be used in case the original is destroyed.
3. (also adjective) a piece of equipment, a system etc that can be used when there is a problem with the original one. a backup plan; We have a backup generator in case the power fails.
ˈbackwash noun
1. a backward current eg that following a ship's passage through the water. the backwash of the steamer.
2. the unintentional results of an action, situation etc. The backwash of that firm's financial troubles affected several other firms.
ˈbackwater noun
1. a stretch of river not in the main stream.
2. a place not affected by what is happening in the world outside. That village is rather a backwater.
ˌbackˈyard noun
(especially American) a garden at the back of a house etc. He grows vegetables in his backyard.
back down
to give up one's opinion, claim etc. She backed down in the face of strong opposition.
back of
(American) behind. He parked back of the store.
back on to
(of a building etc) to have its back next to (something). My house backs on to the racecourse.
back out
1. to move out backwards. He opened the garage door and backed (his car) out.
2. to withdraw from a promise etc. You promised to help – you mustn't back out now!
back up
1. to support or encourage. The new evidence backed up my arguments.
2. to make a copy of the information stored on the computer or disk.
have one's back to the wall
to be in a very difficult or desperate situation. He certainly has his back to the wall as he has lost his job and cannot find another one.
put someone's back up
to anger someone. He put my back up with his boasting.
take a back seat
to take an unimportant position. At these discussions he always takes a back seat and listens to others talking.
Kernerman English Multilingual Dictionary © 2006-2013 K Dictionaries Ltd.


إِلى الوَرَاء, خَلْف, خَلْفِيّ, ظَهْر, يُطِلُّ ظَهْره على sousedit zezadu, záda, zadní, zadní strana, zpět bag, bag-, ryg, tilbage, vende bagsiden mod Rücken, Rückseite, rückständig, zurück, zurücksetzen μακριά από, πίσω, πίσω θέα, πλάτη atrás, dar a, espalda, lindar por atrás con, parte posterior, posterior, trasero selkä, taka-, takaisin, takana, tukea arrière, dos, être attenant, fond gledati na, leđa, natrag, pozadina, stražnji il retro dà su, indietro, posteriore, retro, schiena, 後ろに, 後ろの, 後退させる, 背中 뒤로, 뒤의, 뒤쪽, 등, 후원하다 achter, achterkant, ergens met de rug naar staan, rug, terug bakover, bakre, bakside, rygg, rygge cofnąć, plecy, tył, tylny, z powrotem apoiar, costas, parte de trás, retroceder, ter as traseiras viradas para, traseiras, traseiro выходить задним фасадом, задний, задняя часть, назад, спина backa, bak-, bakre delen, rygg, tillbaka กลับไปสภาพเดิม, ซึ่งผ่านมาแล้ว ซึ่งอยู่ด้านหลัง, ด้านหลัง, ถอยหลัง สนับสนุน, หลัง ส่วนหลัง arka, arkada, gerilemek, sırt lưng, ở phía sau, phía sau, quay lưng ra, về phía sau 后背, 后退, 后部, 后面的, 向后
Multilingual Translator © HarperCollins Publishers 2009


n. espalda;
___ toothmuela;
low ___ painlumbalgia;
adv. atrás, detrás.
English-Spanish Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012
Collins Multilingual Translator © HarperCollins Publishers 2009


adj de atrás; adv hacia atrás; n espalda; — of the hand dorso (de la mano), parte f de atrás de la mano; low — pain dolor m lumbar, dolor de la espalda baja, dolor de la parte baja de la espalda; to have a bad — (fam) estar mal de la espalda (fam), tener dolor de espalda crónico; upper — parte alta de la espalda, espalda superior (form)
English-Spanish/Spanish-English Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in classic literature ?
I'll just walk up and down a minute, and see if I can call it back from recollec- tion's vaults."
And the yelping dog-teams go, And the long whips crack, and the men come back, Back from the edge of the floe !
Joe sat on the stool, leaning far back into the corner, head thrown back and arms outstretched on the ropes to give easy expansion to the chest.
The man, startled and alarmed, shrank back and was about to run into the jungle whence he had emerged.
"His honor left word that if you cared to drive out, the carriage would be back immediately."
"Not before midnight," I whispered back. "Say nothing, and sit still."
As the dancers poured out of the hall Frome, drawing back behind the projecting storm-door, watched the segregation of the grotesquely muffled groups, in which a moving lantern ray now and then lit up a face flushed with food and dancing.
At the same instant the man stumbled forward upon his knees, and lay lifeless upon the deck, a blood-stained feather jutting out from his back. As Alleyne stooped to raise him, the air seemed to be alive with the sharp zip-zip of the bolts, and he could hear them pattering on the deck like apples at a tree-shaking.
"Her friends may interfere; the girl may come back. It must be done to-night."
One Sunday, late in the afternoon, found Daylight across the bay in the Piedmont hills back of Oakland.
Half-way up the companion, he deposited Jerry on deck and went back to the stateroom for a forgotten bottle of quinine.
He stood still and listened, and presently heard words passed back and forth betwixt what seemed to be two men, and yet the two voices were wondrously alike.