The young writer that Jake gets angry with at the bal musette
in Chapter 4 is still "Robert Prentiss," not "Roger Prescott" (a thinly disguised Glenway Wescott) from page 38 of the typescript setting-copy that Hemingway sent to Scribner's (now in the Smalls Library at the University of Virginia); in Chapter 12, Bill Gorton still speaks of "'Henry's bicycle,"' not of "'Henry James's bicycle'" (found on page 163 of the typescript) when the subject of Jake's emasculation comes up.
A few, particularly those involved in the Parisian bal musette
scene, became even more widely known through commercial 78s, the influence of which is likely to have fed back into rural repertoires and playing styles.
At around 6pm on a Sunday afternoon in May 1937 an attractive young woman with newly coiffed blond hair, wearing a finely tailored green suit, white hat and gloves, left a bal musette, or dancehall, in a working-class suburb of Paris near the Charente River and the Bois de Vincennes.
Even more intriguing, Toureaux not only worked in a glue factory by day and a bal musette by night, but found employment with a private detective agency in central Paris called Agence Rouff, where she specialised in surveillance and message delivery.
This article shows how Crevel's Paris serves, in turn, as a locus of homosexual pleasures (especially those of the bal musette), a source of verbal puns, and a site of socio-economic inequalities.
In his second novel, Mon corps et moi (1925), Crevel turns his attention to another form of Parisian nightlife: the bal musette. His perspective on this popular entertainment form is unusual for a Surrealist writer, since the bisexual Crevel is interested in the bal musette as a theatre for homosexual encounters.
Braddocks, Robert Prentiss, the artist Zizi, the bal musette homosexuals, and the Paris and Pamplona tourists who are unhaunted by nada, have no real cause for rebellion against their societies, and are messy and undisciplined as they imitate without comprehension the actions of the insiders.(2) Of course, these are specific characters with specific narrative functions--to express ideas through word and action--but it is a mistake to disregard how some social types are given more degrading duties than others.
At the Parisian bal musette, a group of young gay men arrives with Brett, at which point Jake commences to objectify them according to their appearance and behavior, all the while scornfully referring to the group as "them" or "they." In their article deconstructing the novel's code hero, Arnold and Cathy Davidson theorize Jake's negative reaction as an act of othering: "Jake may be ill-equipped to deal with Brett's sexuality, but not from lack of desire.
Despite their engaging style, bal musette
and trallalero singing, included here, have not been widely documented, since as urban vernaculars they fall outside the province of traditional music study.
This note looks at the new words Hemingway has contributed to our language from "crut" to "whunk"; the foreign language borrowings he has given currency--such as bal musette
, cojones, and tenente; and even the words reflecting Hemingway himself, such as "Hemingwayesque" and "Hemingwayan."
Mencken, and foreign language terms like "cogida" "bal musette
," "fiacre," "aficion," and the like.
For example, at the bal musette
, the narrating Barnes shares with the reader an apparently frank and simple heterosexual desire: Brett was damned good-looking.