Rather than a bardolatrous
narrative of Shakespearean authorship, Hooks proposes a capitalistic narrative of entrepreneurship.
But Lesser argues that Collier, Halliwell, and Knight took their opposing positions because of their shared Romantic convictions: not only their Bardolatrous
belief in Shakespeare's poetic demi-divinity, but their shared insistence on great art's organic nature.
While Bate justifies the decision to call the collection William Shakespeare and Others: Collaborative Plays 'in order to keep the many unresolved questions open' and also 'to avoid the quasi-biblical (and thus unhelpfully bardolatrous
) associations of the word "apocrypha"' (15), the uncertain authorial status and textual provenance of many plays included renders the title problematic.
Virginia Woolf, no bardophile herself, was the rebellious daughter of a deeply bardolatrous
, imperialist, and sexually conservative Victorian England.
Commercially unsuccessful but critically influential, Pope was both the instigator and the most extreme example of the Bardolatrous
attitude towards Shakespeare in eighteenth-century editorial practice.
When the real is shown to be at best ordinary and at worst hollow, we can abandon our bardolatrous
fantasies and acknowledge the historical facts in front of us.
Various factors would tempt him: the synonymy of Globe and 'Totus Mundus', Farewel Folly's echoes of As You Like It, and Oldys's own bardolatrous
desire to connect with Shakespeare.
As Michael Dobson has observed: "The presence of Shakespeare's plays in the culture of the United States of America--a nation descended, according to its principal founding myth, from seventeenth-century Puritans who fled England to avoid (among other things) Renaissance drama--has always been attended, understandably, by a certain ambivalence, even on the part of the most bardolatrous
" ("Fairly Brave New World: Shakespeare, the American Colonies, and the American Revolution," Renaissance Drama 23:189).
Shakespearean parody in the nineteenth century appeared in the form of "short skits, brief references, and satirical songs inserted into other modes of entertainment." (10) The burlesque, according to Richard Schoch, served to redirect Shakespeare's language toward non-Shakespearean concerns and exposed "the fragility of official Bardolatrous
culture." (11) And, perhaps most importantly, burlesque was a central component to blackface minstrelsy, a form of commercialized popular culture that, as William Maher notes, appropriated elements of black culture with varying degrees of accuracy.
The best Balmanno can hope for is a kind of partial second-order fulfillment of his bardolatrous
desires: a glance at Anne Shakespeare's cleavage, a few half-preserved shreds and patches of her speech.
Bate sees the riots "as a battle for the possession of Shakespeare" (43); Shakespeare's plays made up a signif part of the repertory at Covent Garden and the riots equally "had economic, as well as Bardolatrous
, motivations" (45).
Although the more mature playwright will wrap these anxious contradictions in textual plenitude, this early play exposes the rudimentary structures that preclude, even from the most bardolatrous
, humanistic appeals to some essential "truth" about the comic "nature" of "man."