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Prior to Argo, ocean temperature data was sparse at best, relying on devices called expendable bathythermographs that sank to the depths only once, transmitting data on ocean temperature until settling into watery graves.
Water temperature data from expendable bathythermographs deployed during active tracking showed that fish only descended to depths where temperatures were [less than or equal to] 3[degrees]C cooler than the uniform-temperature surface layer.
Expendable bathythermograph (XBT) and mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) have been used to observe the vertical distribution of the temperature.
When they spotted one, they had the pilot hover a few feet above the surface while one member of the team dropped an expend able bathythermograph, or XBT, out of one side of the helicopter, and another dropped a grounding wire out of the other side.
Nor even the fact that a network of 3,175 bathythermograph buoys have found that the heat content of the ocean has been dropping for the last five years.
Gear used included an Isaacs-Kidd midwater trawl net, bongo net, Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) probes, Expendable Bathythermograph (XBT), and a sea surface temperature recorder.
During nine flights in June and September, covering more than 6,000 miles, we collected flight-level weather data, sea surface temperature (SST), and downward shortwave radiometry, deployed 49 airborne expendable bathythermograph (AXBT) probes, 10 airborne expendable conductivity-temperature-depth (AXCTD) probes, 10 atmospheric dropsondes, and 6 ALAMO floats.
Among these were displays of cleared and stained "see-through" larval fish of important commercial species, models of the principal tuna species studied at the Center, plankton collecting nets and samplers, a live-fish tank, examples of the groundfish species studied, a large porpoise model exhibit, an expendable bathythermograph recorder and probe used to measure deepwater ocean temperatures, a remote-controlled underwater vehicle (ROV), a sportfishing exhibit, a panel describing the 200-mile fishing limit, and many other examples of the specialized gear and equipment used on research survey cruises.
The various science missions would require station keeping during CTD casts, deployment of current drifters, and expendable bathythermograph (XBT) launches, as well as weather system analysis designed to put Knorr in the path of the harshest weather conditions possible during the winter season.
Temperature measurements were collected throughout each trawl haul with a calibrated Branker bathythermograph, either a SeaBird-19 or SeaBird-39 microbathythermograph (Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc., Bellevue, WA) attached to the net.
Beginning in 1945 and continuing to the end, US ships made bathythermograph (B/T) observations that today constitute the largest B/T archive in existence.
3.24) is estimated using a combination of high-density (closely spaced) expendable bathythermograph (XBT) and broader-scale Argo profiling float data (Garzoli et al.
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