Equally important is the chapter "Impact, The Beaten Zone
" which overviews concepts important to understanding gunnery with machine guns.
The rate of fire of my example is a bit spunky at around 900 rounds per minute but this produces a thoroughly hammered beaten zone within the limits of the relatively slow M43 cartridge.
In each scenario all rounds fired would have remained within a beaten zone the size of a vehicle but the RPD is a support weapon, not a sniper rifle.
When this cone of fire strikes the ground, it forms an elliptical pattern referred to as the beaten zone. As the range to the target increases, the elliptical shape of the beaten zone becomes shorter and wider.
When firing Onto slopes, the beaten zone becomes shorter, but retains the same width.
Plunging Fire--this is fire in which the angle of the fall of the rounds with reference to the' slope of the ground is such that the so-called "danger space" for friendly troops is practically confined to the beaten zone and because of the slope of the ground is materially shortened.
Frontal Fire--the long axis of the beaten zone is in direct line with the forward movement of the target.
Oblique Fire--fire in which the long axis of the beaten zone is at an angle, but not 'a right angle, to the long axis of the target.
This could be compared to the beaten zone
for small arms weapons The bottom line is when GPS guidance is used.
Lift fire--In direct fire, the command to raise the cone of fire so that the beaten zone strikes the target, but the space between the target and the firing weapons is safe for maneuver by friendly forces.
Shift fire--The command to move the cone of fire in a direction away from a friendly maneuvering force so that enemy forces continue to be struck by the beaten zone at the same time the friendly unit moves.
It's not easy to achieve overlapping beaten zones
in front of the element moving across the objective while simultaneously neutralizing bunkers and destroying vehicles with missiles or providing indirect fires that screen, mark targets, or isolate the objective.