Raxone (idebenone), a synthetic short-chain benzoquinone
and a cofactor for the enzyme NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), circumvents the complex I defect, reduces and scavenges ROS, restores cellular energy levels in retinal ganglion cells and promotes recovery of visual acuity.
The inhibitor, benzoquinone
is used to provide shelf-life and increase flow time.
(11) The formation of oxide derivatives of PPD such as benzoquinone
diimide is responsible for destruction of muscle cells by a mechanism of membrane lipid peroxidation which leads to muscle necrosis and also produces fatal effects on various organ by causing angio-neurotic edema, myocarditis and rhabdomyolysis.
(23) investigated the antiapoptotic and cytoprotective effects of idebenone, a benzoquinone
derivative that is structurally related to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q10), on optic nerve head astrocytes (ONHA) under oxidative stress.
dermestoides, such as the benzoquinone
volatile compounds isolated from the defensive secretions of U.
A carbon paste electrode was fabricated by packing a mixture of graphite powder, paraffin liquid, and 2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1, 4 benzoquinone
([Q.sub.0]) as a mediator into the end of glass tube.
The deficiency of homogentisate 1,2 dioxygenate (HGD) leads to an accumulation of homogentisic acid (HGA) in plasma and urine which auto-oxidizes in tissues into benzoquinone
acetic acid and polymerizes to an ochronotic pigment.
The degradation pathway of anthocyanins by the action of polyphenol oxidase is as follows: under the influence of oxygen and polyphenol oxidase, catechols are first oxidized to generate benzoquinone
The possible metabolic mechanisms for the underlying alterations in the liver enzymes as proposed by the various investigators worldwide are that following inhalation, benzene and the other hydrocarbons present in gasoline are readily absorbed from the lungs and get metabolized in the liver by CYP450 2E1 oxidative pathways which contribute to the production of free radicals and quinine metabolites such as phenol, hydroquinone, benzoquinone
; 1,2,4 benzenetriol.
Accumulation of HGA leads to the formation of a benzoquinone
polymer catalyzed by the enzyme polyphenol oxidase.
, 1,2-naphthoquinone, 1,4-naphthoquinone, and 9,10-phenanthroquinone," Toxicological Sciences, vol.
Applying the first-order derivative, the analytical signal attributed to the oxidation product of HQ (benzoquinone
(BQ)) could be used for the indirect determination of HQ in the presence of the other ingredients, at the zero-crossing of KA oxidation product (268 nm), where the amplitudes of the first-order derivative spectra of AA and GA oxidation products are also zero (Figure 5(b)).