These data suggest that, in addition to stimulation of beta-oxidation
via increased PGC1-alpha and CPT1-alpha expression, restoration of autophagy may be contributing to the reduction of fat content in this setting.
The second is the reestablishment of metabolic flexibility, the ability to utilize either fatty acids through beta-oxidation
or glucose through glycolysis for energy production.
T2 Weighted MRI of a patient with Beta-Oxidation
of Fatty Acid Disorder showing Normal Findings (A).
Recent research from Belgium using an animal model has identified that butyrate directly influences colonocyte oxygen consumption through the beta-oxidation
pathway leading to a symbiotic effect in normal gut by maintaining obligate anaerobes rather than facultative anaerobes such as pathogenic Escherichia and Salmonella by limiting the availability of oxygen in the gut, Additionally; gut nitrate is essential for facultative anaerobes, which is formed via nitric oxide synthase 2.
Defects of mitochondrial beta-oxidation
: A growing group of disorders.
In case of fasting, starvation, or enhanced fatty acids beta-oxidation
, synthesis of ketone bodies was upregulated .
Insulin resistance plays a pivotal role in NAFLD genesis as it stimulates lipolysis in white adipose tissue, augmenting the hepatic input of free fatty acids and impairs beta-oxidation
in the liver (Angulo, 2007).
In the absence of serum, the triglyceride content of embryos is not modified throughout development in vitro, and it is very similar to that observed in vivo (9); however, the importance of lipids for embryo development should not be ignored (9,13,28) because the beta-oxidation
of each palmitate fatty acid molecule generates 108 ATP molecules (Figure 3).
FFAs can either enter the mitochondria to undergo beta-oxidation
or undergo esterification into TGs.
Diminished carnitine reserves in muscle of obese rats was accompanied by marked perturbations in mitochondrial fuel metabolism, including low rates of complete fatty acid oxidation, elevated incomplete beta-oxidation
, and impaired substrate switching from fatty acid to pyruvate.