to reproduce them in a lab, something he considers "biopiracy
Knowledge has been commodified by biopiracy
(the enclosure/expropriation of the inherited intellectual commons), separation of knowledge from control over the production process (via smart machines), the expansion of copyright, persistent attempts at intellectual monopolies within particular product areas, the unwillingness of capital to pay for intellectual inputs despite wanting high prices for intellectual outputs, and owing to the increasing importance of knowledge-intensive industries.
and commercialisation of ethnobotanical knowledge.
According to Lea, a legal structure that limits claimants to legal persons and does not include communities supports these forms of corporate biopiracy
. Legislation, not only in the United States but also in India and Iraq, has made it virtually impossible for farmers to grow their own seed varieties, making them dependent on corporate patented seeds.
Indigenous peoples who criticize patent law under discourses of biocolonialism or biopiracy
are re-fashioning the nature/culture binary in new ways, rather than reifying the binary.
Limitations to cooperation include substantial restrictions on foreign researchers collecting or studying biological materials, due to concerns over possible unauthorized taking and commercialization of genetic resources or traditional knowledge of indigenous communities (often referred to as "biopiracy
Much of the stigma typically attached to pharmaceutical bioprospecting (dubbed "biopiracy
" by critics) stems from corporations and developed nations targeting bio-diverse areas in developing nations, such as the Amazon rain forest and other parts of South and Central America.
The long years of work under the Convention to fight against biopiracy
is really about correcting an historical injustice where the seeds, plants and even microbes of developing countries and the rich knowledge of their Indigenous peoples, farmers and fisherfolk have been plundered for commercial profits without prior informed consent and fair sharing of the benefits.
This is nothing less than biopiracy
, the patenting of plant varieties, genes, gene sequences, and proteins in the Third World/Global South by commercial and industrial interests, the privatization of living organisms for the extraction of genes or the genetic modification of existing plants, like the rosy periwinkle of Madagascar, Brazzein, a powerful sweetener from a West African berry, biopesticide from an African cowpea, the neem tree and basmati rice of India.
Reid on 'bioprospecting', Harriet Ritvo, Donna Haraway (1997), Vandana Shiva (1997) on Biopiracy
, Hannah Landecker, Catherine Waldby's biovalue, Chaia Heller's organic phase of capitalism, Mike Fortun's (2008) genomics as a speculative science, Margaret Lock's attention to the body, Nikolas Rose's (2001) 'bioeconomics', Sarah Franklin and Margaret Lock's definition of biocapital, Charis Thompson's biotech mode of (re)production, Kaushik Sunder Rajan's 'genomic capital', Cori Hayden, Eugene Thacker's The Global Genome, Rajan's (2006) Biocapital, Adriana Petryna, Andrew Lakoff, and Arthur Kleinman's (2006) Global Pharmaceuticals, Sarah Franklin's (2007) Dolly Mixtures, Joseph Dumit's (2007) 'surplus health', and Melinda Cooper in 'Life, Autopoiesis, Debt: inventing the bioeconomy'.
In this fast-paced biography, he ties together the much larger issues of the rush for rubber and the impact of nineteenth-century "biopiracy
Yet, bioprospecting with no consideration for ABS would nowadays be called "biopiracy
." In the case of the Hoodia (Hoodia gordonii) in Southern Africa, there was a public outcry regarding the development of appetite suppressant products based on the traditional knowledge of the San people.