Riparian habitat, in turn, beckoned beavers, butterflies, songbirds, trout, and other members of the biotic community
that had disappeared or declined due to predator eradication, in a process scientists describe as "trophic cascades.
Though Callicott has always drawn fluently from historical sources, in this work he has pushed this scholarly aspect of his work further; and so after his efforts to bring Leopold's land ethic into harmony with contemporary ecology, resulting in a modified credo--'A thing is right when it tends to preserve the beauty of the biotic community
and to disturb it only at normal spatial and temporal scales.
47) In particular, the intentional introduction of a revived species into a biotic community
of which it was never a constituent might be regarded as necessarily a degradation of native biotic communities and natural ecosystems, akin to an invasive species that makes the existing community ostensibly less authentic.
Nonetheless, the species is absent from most of Arizona's desert grassland, which is a semidesert grassland biotic community
within a temperate climate (Brown, 1994a; McClaran and Van Devender, 1995).
One of Leopold's most endearing ideas came from this book, that of the "land ethic," the moral imperative that "a thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community
Activities, such as fly fishing, that encourage people to engage with the biotic community
around them also encourage the acquisition of the basic ecological understanding that allows people who are not professionally trained to make the essential leaps of logic necessary to give reasonable well-thought consideration to the environmental arguments presented by "experts.
He proposed a dramatic change in how we view and relate to the natural world, advocating a "land ethic" based on preserving the integrity, stability and beauty of the biotic community
His 1925 American Forests' magazine article, "The Last Stand of the Wilderness," became the basis for American Forests' national campaign for wilderness preservation.
The move from the human community to a biotic community
, then, requires that we recognize a complex system of mutually interdependent parts that includes "soils, water, plants, and animals," and that we be able to give an account of how we can frame generally reliable, albeit fallible and corrigible, judgments about the needs and interests of the non-human parts of such a system.
But later, he saw his role, and indeed that of the human species as a whole, not as conqueror of and director over nature, but as just "plain member and citizen" of the biotic community
The preservation of the biotic community
cannot call for the elimination or even the minimization of agriculture.
change can follow different pathways depending on physicochemical conditions and the susceptibility of the waterbody to nutrient enrichment (Figure 4).
We used to strive to interweave architecture with the human and biotic community
, but that presupposes a separation between the three, requiring a joining together.